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Unformatted text preview: are mainly used for storing programs
and data that are only read (not written/modified).
In the area of large-scale systems, the fifth-generation period saw the emergence of more
powerful supercomputers based on parallel processing technology. That is, the same
multiprocessing concept of fourth generation was used to build shared memory and
distributed memory parallel computers. In a shared memory parallel computer, a number
of processors are connected to a common main memory by a high-speed bus or
communication network, whereas in a distributed memory parallel computer, a number of
processors, each with its own memory, are interconnected by a communication network.
Parallel programming technique is used in these systems to break a problem into smaller
problems and execute them parallely on the multiple processors of the system. While
working on a problem, the various processors of a shared memory parallel computer use
memory access mechanism for communication, whereas the various processors of a
distributed memory parallel computer use message passing mechanism for
communication. Distributed memory parallel computers have better scalability (can grow larger in capability) than shared memory parallel computers, and are now also built by
clustering together powerful commodity workstations by using a high-speed commodity
switched network. This is also known as clustering technology.
During the fifth-generation period there was tremendous outgrowth of computer
networks. Communication technologies became faster day-by-day and more and more
computers got networked together. This trend resulted in the emergence and popularity of
the Internet and associated technologies and applications. The Internet made it possible
for computer users sitting across the globe to communicate with each other within
minutes by the use of electronic mail (known as e-mail) facility. A vast ocean of
information became readily available to the computer users through the World Wide Web
(known as WWW). And several new types of exciting applications li...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14