In this section we will briefly describe some popular

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Unformatted text preview: s feature leads to tremendous saving of programming effort. Ease of Maintenance The modular design and code reusability features also help in making software systems easy to maintain. This is because by making a change in a super-class, in effect all its sub-classes are changed at once, without the tedium of identifying and implementing the same changes at a number of places. Moreover, if changes are made in one sub-class to get distinctions, the code in the super-class and the other sub-classes remains safe. Evolution of OOP Languages The first object-oriented programming language, named Simula 67, was released in 1967. Its language primitives included objects, classes, and inheritance. It was used extensively for simulation and other applications, primarily in Europe. However, the programming language community did not pay too much attention to OOP until the Software Concepts Group at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) released a language known as Smalltalk in the 1970s. Smalltalk 80, a version of Smalltalk released in 1980, caught the public imagination because of its implementation on personal computers and its interactive graphical interface that permitted browsing and the display of objects in multiple windows. Smalltalk was actually the basis for both the Apple Macintosh graphical user interface and Windows. Starting in the mid-1980s, OOP became a popular term, and object-oriented dialects of existing programming languages began to appear, like Object-Pascal, Objective C, and C++. C++ has proven to be a popular object-oriented programming language because of its connection with C and its support by AT&T Bell Labs. The OOP philosophy has now got extended to almost all popular programming languages including Visual Basic and Java. SOME HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES A large number of high-level languages have been developed since the first ones in the early 1950s. By now, more than 1000 high-level languages have been developed, but many of them are no longer in use. Only a handful have been truly significant, and even fewer have been wi...
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