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Unformatted text preview: is primarily used in China, Europe, and the US.
3. EDGE. Enhanced Data-rate for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology (also
known as Enhanced Data GSM Environment) is yet another GSM upgrade that
offers data transfer rates of up to 384 Kbps. It employs new modulation and radio
techniques that use existing GSM's frequency range more efficiently. It is
primarily used in tffe US.
As mentioned before, 3G technology is designed to offer data rates high enough
for mobile users to work with multimedia web content, videoconferencing, and ecommerce. It is designed to offer data transmission rates of up to 2.05 Mbps in
stationary applications, 384 Kbps for slow-moving users, and 128 Kbps for users
moving in vehicles. 3G is thus considerably faster than 2G and 2.5 G technologies.
It comprises of the following three primary standards:
W-CDMA. Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA)
technology is an upgrade to the CDMA standard of 2G technology. It uses a 5MHz-wide carrier signal, rather than the 200-KHz-wide carrier that narrowband
CDMA uses. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has formally
standardized this technology to let the vendors offer a consistent set of services
throughout the world. This technology is also known as International Mobile
Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000) direct spread.
2. CDMA2000. This is yet another CDMA upgrade technology. It offers a
migration path from CDMA2000 lx to CDMA2000 lxEV-DO and lxEV-DV to
CDMA2000 3x. CDMA2000 lx offers maximum data rates of 153.6 Kbps.
During the next few years, users could move to lxEV-DO (lx evolution, data only)
and lxEV-DV (lx evolution, data and voice), offering data rates up to 614 Kbps.
Finally, users could move ahead to CDMA2000 3x, which would provide the full
3G maximum throughput of 2.05 Mbps.
Time-Division CDMA (TD-CDMA) is a technology that
combines time-division multiplexing and CDMA techniques. It was developed and
used primarily in China.
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are like traditional LANs having a
wireless interface to enable wireless communication among the equi...
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- Spring '14