Logic programming deals with the use of a formal

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Unformatted text preview: e files are read, few calculations are performed, and output reports are created. However, RPG has restricted mathematical capability and cannot be used for scientific applications. RPG is primarily used to process business applications on small computers. LISP LISP stands for LISt Processing. It was developed in 1959 by John McCarthy of MIT. His goal was to develop a language that will be good at manipulating nonnumeric data, such as symbols and strings of text. Such data handling capability is needed in compiler development, and in Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications that deal with the idea of using computers for modeling human information storage and retrieval, along with other fundamental processes, of the brain. This capability was provided in the form of list processing feature that allow computers to process symbolic data in lists (collection of non-contiguous memory cells that are chained together with pointers). A list having four data elements is shown in Figure 12.23. LISP is a functional programming language and is very different from other imperative languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, and Pascal. All computation in a functional programming language is accomplished by applying functions to arguments. There need not be any assignment statements or even variables that are used the way those of the imperative languages (to store values that change during program execution). Due to its powerful list processing capability, LISP is extensively used in the areas of pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, and for simulation of games. It totally dominated AI applications area for almost a quarter of a century. Even today, it is the most widely used language for AI applications. SNOBOL SNOBOL stands for StriNg Oriented symBOlic Language. It is another language used for non-numeric applications. As the name implies, the language was basically designed to manipulate strings of characters. It has powerful string manipulation features that facilitate various types of operations on strings of characters such as string comparisons, splitting of a string,...
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