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Unformatted text preview: e files are read, few calculations are performed, and
output reports are created. However, RPG has restricted mathematical capability
and cannot be used for scientific applications.
RPG is primarily used to process business applications on small computers.
LISP stands for LISt Processing. It was developed in 1959 by John McCarthy of
MIT. His goal was to develop a language that will be good at manipulating nonnumeric data, such as symbols and strings of text. Such data handling capability is
needed in compiler development, and in Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications
that deal with the idea of using computers for modeling human information
storage and retrieval, along with other fundamental processes, of the brain. This
capability was provided in the form of list processing feature that allow computers
to process symbolic data in lists (collection of non-contiguous memory cells that
are chained together with pointers). A list having four data elements is shown in
Figure 12.23. LISP is a functional programming language and is very different from other
imperative languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, and Pascal. All computation in a
functional programming language is accomplished by applying functions to
arguments. There need not be any assignment statements or even variables that are
used the way those of the imperative languages (to store values that change during
Due to its powerful list processing capability, LISP is extensively used in the areas
of pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, and for simulation of games. It totally
dominated AI applications area for almost a quarter of a century. Even today, it is
the most widely used language for AI applications.
SNOBOL stands for StriNg Oriented symBOlic Language. It is another language
used for non-numeric applications. As the name implies, the language was
basically designed to manipulate strings of characters. It has powerful string
manipulation features that facilitate various types of operations on strings of
characters such as string comparisons, splitting of a string,...
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- Spring '14