Realizing the importance of supercomputers in the

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Unformatted text preview: usually takes place through the shared memory. These machines are easy to program, but the number of processors that can be usefully deployed is usually small (16 to 32 CPUs) and limited by the bandwidth of the shared memory. 2. Distributed memory parallel computer. As shown in Figure 20.6, in this type of parallel computer, the processors do not share memory, and each processor has its own local memory. All communication between the processors is done by passing messages across the network that interconnects the processors. Hence distributed memory parallel computers are also known as message passing parallel computers. They are more freely scalable and can have an almost unlimited (several hundred) number of processors. Local memory Local memory Local memory Local memory CPU CPU CPU CPU Communication network Figure 20.6. A distributed memory parallel computer. The speed of modern supercomputers is measured in gigaflops and teraflops. A gigqflop is one billion (109) floating-point arithmetic operations per. second, and a teraflop is 1012 floating-point arithmetic operations second. The PARAM 10000 supercomputer (shown in Figure 20.7) developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), India in the year 1998 is a 100 gigaflops system. Like mainframe systems, supercomputers also support multiprogramming and can be accessed by multiple users at the same time. However, the main difference between these two types of systems is that supercomputers primarily address processor-bound applications whereas mainframe systems are oriented to input/output-bound applications. In processor-bound applications, the amount of work that can be performed by the computer system is limited primarily by the speed of the CPU(s), whereas in I/O-bound applications, the amount of work that can be performed by the computer system is limited primarily by the speeds of the I/O devices. Supercomputers are rarely used for processing input/output-intensive applications, such as payr...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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