Since modern supercomputers employ parallel

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Unformatted text preview: need to deal with to ensure safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness. For example, the designer of a large bridge has to ensure that the bridge must work in various atmospheric conditions and pressures from wind, velocity, etc., and under different load conditions. Actual construction and testing of such expensive structures is prohibitive in most cases. Hence simulation techniques are extensively used in structural mechanics area. Computer simulation of these problems is a complex activity and requires powerful supercomputers to complete the simulation in a reasonable time. Using mathematical modeling techniques, various combinations can be tried out without going for the actual construction/manufacturing of the structure and the most optimum design can be picked up. 5. Meteorological centers use supercomputers for weather forecasting. In weather forecasting and in research involving the earth's atmosphere, weather data supplied by a worldwide network of space satellites, airplanes, and ground stations are fed into supercomputers. These data are analyzed by a series of computer programs to arrive at forecasts. This analysis involves solving of complex mathematical equations, which model the atmosphere and climate processes. For example, in India, the National Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), located in New Delhi, currently uses the CRAY XMP-216 supercomputer for predicting the medium range weather forecasts, which is very crucial for the Indian agriculture. 6. Material scientists and physicists use supercomputers to design new materials. Termed as nanostructure technology, this field requires microscopic investigation of mechanical, electrical, optical and structural properties of materials. For this, scientists need to simulate the nanoscale materials like clusters of atoms, quantum dots, quantum wires using first principles molecular dynamics technique. Such simulations are highly compute intensive since they combine the complexity of molecular dynamics and electronic structure. Hence supercomputers are needed to complete these simulations in a reasonable time. 7. Film and TV indu...
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