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13. Any storage unit of a computer system i,s characterized and evaluated based on the
following properties -storage capacity, access time, cost per bit of storage, volatile,
14. A primary storage or main memory of a computer system is made up of several small
storage areas called locations or cells. Each of these locations can store a fixed number of bits called word length of that particular memory. Each location can hold either a data
item or an instruction, and its address remains the same regardless of its contents. The
addresses normally start at 0 and the highest address equals the number of words that can
be stored in the memory minus 1.
15. Data and instructions are moved to and from memory in bunches of word length.
Therefore, even if the electronic circuits used are comparable in speed, machines having
smaller word-length will be slower in operation than machines having larger word-length.
16. The main memory of some computers is designed to store a fixed number of
characters (equal to its word length in bytes) in each numbered address location. Such
computers are said to be word-addressable, and they employ a fixed-word-length memory
approach. In these computers, storage space is always allocated in multiples of wordlength. In many computers, the main memory is also designed in such a way that each
numbered address can only store a single character (A, B, 1, 2, +, -, etc.) Computers
designed in this manner are said to be character-addressable and they employ a variableword-length memory approach.
17. The main memory capacity of large computer systems is normally more than small
systems. This capacity is defined in terms of the number of bytes a computer system can
store. Memory capacity of a computer system is normally stated in terms of kilobytes
(KB) which is equal to 1024 (2 10) bytes of storage, or in terms of megabytes (MB) which
is equal to 1,048,576 (220) bytes of storage, or in terms of gigabytes (GB) which is equal
to 1,073,741,824 (230) bytes of storage.
18. A computer's main memory is built of volatile RAM chips...
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- Spring '14