The ic technology was also known as microelectronics

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Unformatted text preview: ingle chip of silicon eliminating wired interconnection between components. The IC technology was also known as "microelectronics" technology because it made it possible to integrate larger number of circuit components into very small (less than 5 mm square) surface of silicon known as "chip" [see Figure 1.2(c)]. Initially, the integrated circuits contained only about ten to twenty components. This technology was named small scale integration (SSI). Later, with the advancement in technology for manufacturing ICs, it became possible to integrate up to about hundred components on a single chip. This technology came to be known as medium scale integration (MSI). The third generation was characterized by computers built using integrated circuits. The earlier ones used SSI technology and the later ones used MSI technology. ICs were much smaller, less expensive to produce, more rugged and reliable, faster in operation, dissipated less heat, and consumed much less power than circuits built by wiring electronic components manually. The net result was that third-generation computers were more powerful, more reliable, less expensive, smaller, and cooler to operate than the second-generation computers. Parallel advancements in storage technologies allowed the construction of larger magnetic cores based random access memory, and larger capacity magnetic disks and magnetic tapes. Hence the third-generation computers typically had few megabytes (less than 5 Megabytes), of main memory and magnetic disks capable of storing few tens of megabytes of data per disk drive. On the software front, the third generation saw the emergence of standardization of highlevel programming languages, timesharing operating systems, unbundling of software from hardware, and the creation of an independent software industry. During the third generation, efforts were made to standardize some of the existing high-level programming languages so that programs written for one computer can be easily ported to and executed on another computer. This resulted in standardized FORTRAN and COBOL languages known as FORTRAN IV and COBOL 68, which were...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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