The techniques and tools meant for extraction of

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Unformatted text preview: of programs is provided to facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating their files. All these programs together form a File Management System (FMS). 7. In the database-oriented approach of organizing data, data from multiple related files is integrated together in the form of a database, which has the following properties: • It provides greater query flexibility. • It reduces data redundancy. • It solves data integrity (inconsistency) problem. • It makes data independent of the application programs. That is, fields can be added, changed, and deleted from the database without affecting existing programs. • It also includes data security features at database level, record level, and even at field level to provide greater flexibility of restricted data access. A set of programs is provided to facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating their data in a database. All these programs together form a Database Management System (DBMS). 8. File organization deals with the physical organization of the records of a file for the convenience of storage and retrieval of data records. The three commonly used file organizations in business data processing applications are sequential, direct/random, and indexed sequential. 9. File utilities consist of routines, which perform a variety of generalized operations on data files. The operations performed by some of the commonly used file utilities are sorting, searching, merging, copying, printing and maintenance. 10. A database model defines the manner in which the various files of a database are linked together. The four commonly used database medels are hierarchical, network, relational, and object-oriented. 11. The four major components of a database management system are data definition language (DDL), data manipulation language (DML), query language and report generator. 12. The data definition language (DDL) is used to define the structure of a database. The databa...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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