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Unformatted text preview: of programs is provided
to facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating
their files. All these programs together form a File Management System (FMS).
In the database-oriented approach of organizing data, data from multiple
related files is integrated together in the form of a database, which has the
• It provides greater query flexibility.
• It reduces data redundancy.
• It solves data integrity (inconsistency) problem.
It makes data independent of the application programs. That is, fields can be
added, changed, and deleted from the database without affecting existing
• It also includes data security features at database level, record level, and even
at field level to provide greater flexibility of restricted data access.
A set of programs is provided to facilitate the users in organizing, creating,
deleting, updating, and manipulating their data in a database. All these programs
together form a Database Management System (DBMS).
8. File organization deals with the physical organization of the records of a file
for the convenience of storage and retrieval of data records. The three commonly
used file organizations in business data processing applications are sequential,
direct/random, and indexed sequential.
File utilities consist of routines, which perform a variety of generalized
operations on data files. The operations performed by some of the commonly used
file utilities are sorting, searching, merging, copying, printing and maintenance.
10. A database model defines the manner in which the various files of a database
are linked together. The four commonly used database medels are hierarchical,
network, relational, and object-oriented.
11. The four major components of a database management system are data
definition language (DDL), data manipulation language (DML), query language
and report generator.
12. The data definition language (DDL) is used to define the structure of a
database. The databa...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14