They were also referred to as ansi fortran and ansi

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Unformatted text preview: standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1966 and 1968 repectively. They were also referred to as ANSI FORTRAN and ANSI COBOL. The idea was that as long as these standards are followed in program writing, a FORTRAN or a COBOL program could be run on any computer with an ANSI FORTRAN or ANSI COBOL compiler (see Chapter 12 for details). Additionally, some more high-level programming languages were introduced during the third-generation period. Notable among these were PL/1, PASCAL and BASIC. Unlike other high-level programming languages, which used compiler technology, BASIC was designed to use interpreter technology (see Chapter 12 for details). We saw that in second-generation computers batch operating system was used. In these systems, users had to prepare their data and programs and then submit them to the computer centre for processing. The operator at the computer centre collected these user jobs and fed them to the computer in batches at scheduled intervals. The output produced for each job was then sent to the computer centre counter for being returned to the respective users. The inevitable delay resulting from this batch processing approach was very frustrating to some users, especially programmers because often they had to wait for days to locate and correct a few program errors. To remedy this situation, John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz of Dartmouth College introduced the concept of timesharing operating system. Timesharing operating system simultaneously allows a large number of users to directly access and share the computing resources in such a way that each user gets the illusion that no one else is using the computer. This is accomplished by having a large number of independent, relatively low-speed, online terminals simultaneously connected to the main computer. Each terminal can be used by a separate user providing him/her direct access to the main computer. Timesharing operating system allocates CPU time in such a way that all user programs have a brief share of the CPU time in turn. That is, each...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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