Thus the standardized osi protocols made it possible

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: of the network architecture. 3. Layering of protocols also allows interaction between functionally paired layers in different locations. This concept aids in permitting the distribution of functions to remote nodes. The terms protocol suite, protocol family, or protocol stack are used to refer to the collection of protocols (of layers) of a particular network system. Network Interface Cards Network interface card, often referred to as NIC or network card, is a hardware device that allows a computer to be connected to a network, both functionally and physically. The NIC is a printed circuit board that is installed on to one of the expansion slots of the computer and provides a port on the back of the computer to which the network cable is attached. Thus, the NIC is one of the several add-on cards (expansion boards) that the computer may have. As the NIC is connected directly to the computer's I/O bus, the design of a NIC is specific to the computer's I/O bus hardware, the computer's operating system, and the network's communication protocol. The network's communication protocol is embedded in the NIC's ROM. Thus, there are different NICs for different networks even for the same computer. For example, if a computer is to be connected to an Ethernet LAN, it must be equipped with an Ethernet network card, and if it is to be connected to an ATM network, it must be equipped with an ATM network card. In addition to the communication software embedded in the NIC's ROM, the computer also requires network software that tells the computer how to use the NIC. Both the network software and the NIC have to adhere to the communication protocol of the network to which the computer is to be connected. The OSI Model The initial computer networks had their own set of standards and conventions that were quite hardware oriented. Each manufacturer used to develop their own communication protocols for their networks. For example, IBM launched SNA (Systems Network Architecture) in 1974. Similarly, DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) launched its network in 1980 for use on the DEC ran...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online