We saw that in this method almost 30 of the disk

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Unformatted text preview: onential, and logarithm of numbers; and those that perform mathematical operations such as matrix multiplication, matrix inversion, statistical analysis, and conversion of numbers from one base to another (such as binary to decimal and decimal to binary). Similarly, in the area of string processing, the commonly used library programs include those that perform such operations as string comparison, string copy, string concatenation, and calculation of the length of a given string. Library programs commonly used for file manipulation include those that perform such operations as sorting the file contents to arrange its data in a specified sequence, merging the contents of two or more sorted files into one file containing all the items of all the original files in sorted order, concatenating of two files to create a single file out of their contents, searching for some specific data from a file, and file editing. Like this, there can be a very large number of library programs available in a system. A librarian program usually controls the storage and use of the library programs in the system library. It maintains a program directory for this purpose and also facilitates the addition of new programs- to the library, or deletion of unwanted or old programs from the library whose new, updated versions might have been added to the library. Utility Programs Utility programs assist the users with system maintenance tasks such as disk formatting, disk compaction, removing file fragmentation problem, data compression, data backup, and scanning the system for computer viruses. Few of the frequently used utility programs are briefly described below. Disk Formatting Utility In the section on file management we saw that different operating systems organize and use the available storage space on a disk in different ways. For example, some use contiguous allocation, some use linked allocation, and others use indexed allocation. Moreover, the block size may be different for different operating systems, and certain areas of the disk may be reserved by the operating system for storing system-related information (not for user files). Hence, whenever a new...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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