What is cryptography how does it help in improving

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Unformatted text preview: rnal fragmentation of memory? Give reason for your answer. 54. What is a virtual memory? Why is it so called? How is it useful? 55. Explain the three basic concepts used for the realization of virtual memory. 56. What is swapping? How does it help in memory management? 57. What is a page replacement algorithm? What is a victim page? 58. List out the advantages and disadvantages of virtual memory. 59. If virtual memory is used carelessly, it may substantially decrease performance instead of increasing performance. Discuss. 60. What is a file? Differentiate between a file's data and its attributes. 61. What is a file name? Why is it used? 62. What are the typical jobs performed by the file management module of an operating system? 63. Describe the two popular types of file structures used by operating systems. 64. Describe the two commonly supported file»0ccess methods at operating system level. 65. Differentiate between sequential access and random access files. 66.. List out some of the typical file operations provided by an operating system and mention what each operation is used for. 67. What is a file extension in a file name? What are file extensions typically used for? List out some typical file extensions and their meaning. 68. What is a directory? What does a directory typically contain? 69. Describe the three commonly used types of directory organizations. Discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. 70. Describe the three commonly used methods for disk space allocation. Discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. 71. What are the typical jobs performed by the device management module of an operating system? 72. What is memory-mapped I/O? 73. Explain the non-DMA and DMA methods of transferring data from a device controller's local buffer to the appropriate memory area of the computer. Which method is better and why? 74. How does an operating system provide simple and easy user interface to all I/O devices? 75. Draw a diagram showing the various layers in which the I/O software for device management is typically structured. Explain the functions p...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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