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Unformatted text preview: ed, for storage and retrieval purposes, by a key field whose contents are
unique for each record in a file. In case of our employee file, employee-code field
may serve as the key field.
6. Database. Multiple related files are integrated to form a database. For example,
an employee database of an organization may integrate the records of multiple
employee files, such as employee salary file containing details of salary and
taxation information of all employees, employee personnel information file
containing details of personnel information of all employees, and employee skillset file containing details of various types of skills of all employees. In a database,
the data from multiple files are integrated in such a manner so that data
redundancy is minimized. For example, in case of the above example of three
different employee files, if in each file an employee record contains an employee
address field, and if an employee changes his/her residence, the address must be
changed in all the three files. In a database, the three files will be integrated in such a manner that an employee's address data is stored only once and made
available to all applications. Therefore, only one update will be needed in case of
change of address of an employee. In essence, a database is a collection of
logically related data elements from multiple files.
STANDARD METHODS OF ORGANIZING DATA
The two standard methods used in data processing for organizing data are
1. File-oriented approach and
2. Database-oriented approach.
The file-oriented approach was the traditional method used in early days of data
processing and has largely been replaced today by the database-oriented approach.
However, several applications, dealing with simple and small data sets, use the
file-oriented approach even today. Hence we will have a look at both these
methods of organizing data.
In this method, an application's data is organized into one or more files and the
application program proce...
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- Spring '14