When the payroll program is processed both files will

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Unformatted text preview: ed, for storage and retrieval purposes, by a key field whose contents are unique for each record in a file. In case of our employee file, employee-code field may serve as the key field. 6. Database. Multiple related files are integrated to form a database. For example, an employee database of an organization may integrate the records of multiple employee files, such as employee salary file containing details of salary and taxation information of all employees, employee personnel information file containing details of personnel information of all employees, and employee skillset file containing details of various types of skills of all employees. In a database, the data from multiple files are integrated in such a manner so that data redundancy is minimized. For example, in case of the above example of three different employee files, if in each file an employee record contains an employee address field, and if an employee changes his/her residence, the address must be changed in all the three files. In a database, the three files will be integrated in such a manner that an employee's address data is stored only once and made available to all applications. Therefore, only one update will be needed in case of change of address of an employee. In essence, a database is a collection of logically related data elements from multiple files. STANDARD METHODS OF ORGANIZING DATA The two standard methods used in data processing for organizing data are 1. File-oriented approach and 2. Database-oriented approach. The file-oriented approach was the traditional method used in early days of data processing and has largely been replaced today by the database-oriented approach. However, several applications, dealing with simple and small data sets, use the file-oriented approach even today. Hence we will have a look at both these methods of organizing data. File-oriented Approach In this method, an application's data is organized into one or more files and the application program proce...
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