Who usually supplies it 119 what is meant by booting

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Unformatted text preview: ce. List out their relative advantages and disadvantages. 95. What is a job control language (JCL)? Why is it needed? 96. What is a shell? Why is it so called? Can an operating system have many different shells? Give reason for your answer. 97. Why do most modern operating systems use the layered structure for organizing their various modules? 98. What is a kernel of an operating system? What basic functions of an operating system are typically part of the kernel? 99. Differentiate between the monolithic kernel and microkernel approaches of structuring the modules of an operating system. 100. Differentiate between resident and non-resident operating system modules. What are the main criteria for deciding whether a particular operating system module should be resident or non-resident? 101. What is a real-time system? Give some examples of applications that require real-time systems for their processing. 102. What is a distributed computing system? Give an example of an application that uses a distributed computing system. 103. What are the two common types of operating systems used for distributed computing systems? What are the important features commonly used to differentiate between these two types of operating systems? 104. What is a deadlock? Give an example to illustrate a deadlock situation. 105. What is spooling? How does it help in improving the performance of a computer system? 106. Explain how spooling can be used to convert a mutually exclusive I/O device into a shared resource. 107. What are OS capability enhancement software? Name a few types of software that fall in this category. 108. What are translating programs? Name a few types of software that fall in this category. 109. What are library programs? Give a few examples of such programs. What is a librarian program? 110. What are utility programs? Give a few examples of frequently used utility programs. 111. Write short notes on: (a) Disk formatting utility (d) Data backup utility (b) Data compaction utilit...
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