Lecture15-M48,49

Cogni8onincludesmental habitssuchas

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Unformatted text preview: ns,'appraisals, beliefs,'predic:ons,'and rumina:ons. Cogni8on'includes'mental habits'such'as hypervigilance'(persistently watching(out(for(danger). This'accompanies'anxiety'in PTSD. In$anxiety$disorders,$such cogni8ons$appear repeatedly$and$make anxiety$worse. Examples$of$Hypervigilance: Cogni8ve$errors,'such'as'believing'that'we can'predict'that'bad'events'will'happen Irra8onal$beliefs,'such'as'“bad'things'don’t happen'to'good'people,'so'if'I'was'hurt,'I must'be'bad” Mistaken$appraisals,'such'as'seeing'aches'as diseases,'noises'as'dangers,'and'strangers'as threats Misinterpreta8ons'of'facial'expressions'and ac:ons'of'others,'such'as'thinking'“they’re talking'about'me” Biology$and$Anxiety: $An$Evolu8onary$Perspec8ve 1.$Human$phobic$objects: 2.$Similar$but$nonTphobic$objects: Snakes Fish Heights Low'places Closed'spaces Open'spaces Darkness Bright'light 3.$Dangerous$yet$nonTphobic$subjects: We'are'likely'to'become'cau:ous'about,'but'not'phobic'about: Guns Electric'wiring Cars Evolu:onary'psychologists'believe'that'ancestors prone'to'fear'the'items'on'list'#1'were'less'likely'to die'before'reproducing. There'has'not'been':me'for'the'innate'fear'of'list'#3 (the'gun'list)'to'spread'in'the'popula:on. Biology$and$Anxiety:$Genes Studies'show'that iden:cal'twins,'even raised'separately, develop'similar phobias'(more'similar than'two'unrelated people). Some'people'seem'to have'an'inborn'highU strung'temperament, while'others'are'more easygoing. Temperament'may'be encoded'in'our'genes. Genes$and NeurotransmiVers Genes'regulate'levels'of neurotransmibers. People'with'anxiety'have problems'with'a'gene$associated with'levels'of'serotonin People'with'anxiety'also'have'a gene'that'triggers'high'levels'of glutamate Biology$and$Anxiety:$The$Brain Trauma:c experiences'can'burn fear'circuits'into'the amygdala;'these circuits'are'later triggered'and ac:vated. Anxiety'disorders include'overarousal of'brain'areas involved'in'impulse control'and'habitual behaviors. The'OCD'brain'shows'extra ac:vity'in'the'...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2014 for the course PSYCH 10 taught by Professor Zaidel during the Winter '08 term at UCLA.

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