Lecture15-M48,49

Nightmaresandotherreu experiencing

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Unformatted text preview: 'weeks'to'a'life:me'of: repeated'intrusive'recall'of those'memories. nightmares'and'other'reU experiencing. social'withdrawal'or'phobic avoidance. jumpy'anxiety'or hypervigilance. insomnia'or'sleep'problems. Which$People$get$PTSD? Those'with'less'control'in'the situa:on Those'trauma:zed'more'frequently Those'with'brain'differences Those'who'have'less'resiliency Those'who'get'reUtrauma:zed Resilience$and$PostT Trauma8c$Growth Resilience/recovery aler'trauma'may include: some'lingering,'but not'overwhelming, stress. finding'strengths'in yourself. finding'connec:on with'others. finding'hope. seeing'the'trauma'as a'challenge'that'can be'overcome. seeing'yourself'as'a survivor. Understanding$Anxiety$Disorders: Explana.ons,from,Different,Perspec.ves Classical condi8oning: overgeneralizing a'condi:oned response Observa8onal learning: worrying'like mom Operant condi8oning: rewarding avoidance Cogni8ve appraisals: uncertainty'is danger Evolu8onary: surviving'by avoiding'danger Classical$Condi8oning and$Anxiety Operant$Condi8oning and$Anxiety In'the'experiment'by'John'B. Watson'and'Rosalie'Rayner'in 1920,'Lible'Albert'learned'to feel'fear'around'a'rabbit because'he'had'been condi:oned'to'associate'the bunny'with'a'loud'scary'noise. Some:mes,'such'a'condi:oned response'becomes overgeneralized. We'may'feel'anxious'in'a situa:on'and'make'a'decision to'leave.'This'makes'us'feel beber'and'our'anxious avoidance'was'just'reinforced. If'we'know'we'have'locked'a door'but'feel'anxious'and compelled'to'reUcheck, rechecking'will'help'us temporarily'feel'beber. The'result'is'an'increase'in anxious'thoughts'and behaviors. Observa8onal Learning$and Anxiety Experiments'with'humans and'monkeys'show'that anxiety'can'be'acquired through'observa8onal learning.'If(you(see someone(else(avoiding(or fearing(some(object(or creature,(you(might(pick up(that(fear(and(adopt(it even'aler'the'original scared'person'is'not around. In'this'way,'fears'get passed'down'in'families. Cogni8on$and Anxiety Cogni8on'includes'worried thoughts,'as'well'as interpreta:o...
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