Lecture9-M23,M24

Eorulprocessingstrategies mnemonicspegwordsystem

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Unformatted text preview: #exis5ng#list#that#is already#memorized#along with#numbers. Effor?ul,Processing,Strategies Mnemonics:'Peg'Word'System “One#is#a#bun,#two#is#a#shoe,#three#is#a#tree,#four#is#a door,#five#is#a#hive,#six#is#s5cks,#seven#is#heaven,#eight is#a#gate,#nine#is#swine,#ten#is#a#hen”. Now,#if#asked#to#remember#the#shopping#list:#Carrots, Milk,#Toilet#paper,#Nail,#Hammer S5ck#the#carrot#in#the#bun,#pour#the#milk#in#the#shoe, TP#the#tree,#S5ck#a#nail#on#the#door,#Hit#the#beehive with#the#hammer Can#poten5ally#recall#lists#in#any#order! EfforDul!Processing!Strategies Hierarchies/Categories We#are#more#likely#to#recall#a#concept#if#we#encode#it#in a#hierarchy,#a,branching/nested,set,of,categories,and subDcategories.#Below#is#an#example#of#a#hierarchy, using#some#of#the#concepts#we#have#just#seen. Effor?ul,Processing,Strategies Hierarchy Encoding#and#Effor\ul Processing Chunking Sensory memory EfforRul'strategies Hierarchies Mnemonics Capacity#of STM EfforDul!Processing!Strategies Rehearsal'and'Distributed'Prac=ce Massed'Prac=ce'refers#to#cramming#informa5on#all#at#once. It#is#not#5meEeffec5ve. The#best#way#to The#spacing'effect#was#first#noted#by prac5ce?#Consider#the Hermann#Ebbinghaus#in#the#late tes=ng'effect.#Henry 1800s.#You#will#develop#beSer Roediger#(b.#1947) reten5on#and#recall,#especially#in#the long#run,#if#you#use#the#same#amount found#that#if,your distributed,prac9ce of#study#5me#spread#out#over#many includes,tes9ng shorter#sessions. (having,to,answer This#doesn’t#mean#you#have#to#study ques9ons,about,the every#day.#Memory#researcher#Harry material),,you,will Bahrick#noted#that#the#longer#the learn,more,and,retain 5me#between#study#sessions,#the more,than,if,you beSer#the#longEterm#reten5on,#and merely,reread. the#fewer#sessions#you#need! EfforDul!Processing!Strategies Deep/Seman=c'Processing When#encoding#informa5on,#we#are#more#likely#to#retain#it#if we#deeply#process#even#a#simple#word#list#by#focusing#on#the seman=cs'(meaning)#of#the#words. “Shallow,” unsuccessful processing refers#to memorizing#the appearance#or sound#of words. chicken DOG cat EfforDul!Processing!Strategies Making'Informa=on Personally'Meaningful We#can#memorize#a#set#of#instruc5ons#more#easily#if#we figure#out#what#they#mean#rather#than#seeing#them#as#set of#words. Memorizing#meaningful#material#takes#one#tenth#the#effort of#memorizing#nonsense#syllables. Actors#memorize#lines#(and#students#memorize#poems) more#easily#by#deciding#on#the#feelings#and#meanings behind#the#words,#so#one#line#flows#naturally#to#the...
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