Lecture9-M23,M24

Jyq pgs vfm encodingmemory capacityofshortdterm

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Unformatted text preview: e#of#the#following rows: #top, middle or bottom. JYQ PGS VFM Encoding!Memory Capacity'of'ShortDTerm /Working'Memory If#some#informa5on#is#selected from#sensory#memory#to#be#sent to#shortEterm#memory,#how#much informa5on#can#we#hold#there? George#Miller#(b.#1920)#proposed that#we#can#hold#7#+/E2 informa5on#bits#(for#example,#a string#of#5#to#9#leSers). More#recent#research#suggests that#the#average#person,#free from#distrac5on,#can#hold#about: ######7'digits,'6'le\ers,'or'5'words. Working'Memory,#which uses,rehearsal,,focus, analysis,,linking,,and other,processing,#has greater#capacity#than shortEterm#memory.#The capacity#of#working memory#varies;#some people#have#beSer concentra5on. Dura=on'of'ShortDTerm'Memory'(STM) Lloyd#Peterson#and#Margaret Peterson#wanted#to#know#the dura=on#of#short#term#memory? Their#experiment#(1959): 1.People#were#given#triplets#of consonants#(e.g.,#“VMF”). 2.To#prevent#rehearsing,#the subjects#had#to#do#a#distrac5ng task. 3.People#were#then#tested#at various#5mes#for#recall. Result:#A[er#12#seconds,#most memory#of#the#consonants#had decayed#and#could#not#be retrieved. Encoding: EfforRul'Processing'Strategies If#we#have#shortEterm#recall of#only#7#leSers,#but#can remember#5#words,#doesn’t that#mean#we#could remember#more#than#7 leSers#if#we#could#group them#into#words? This#is#an#example#of#an efforRul'processing'strategy, a,way,to,encode,informa9on into,memory,to,keep,it,from decaying,and,make,it,easier to,retrieve. Effor\ul#processing#is#also known#as#studying. Examples: Chunking#(grouping) Mnemonics:#images, maps,#and#pegEwords Hierarchies/categories Rehearsal,#especially distributed#prac5ce Deep#processing Seman5c#processing Making#informa5on personally#meaningful Effor?ul,Processing,Strategies Chunking Why#are#credit#card#numbers#broken#into#groups#of four#digits?#Four#“chunks”#are#easier#to#encode (memorize)#and#recall#than#16#individual#data#bits. #Memorize:#XIDKKFCFBIANAACPCVSSUVROFNBAQ Chunking:#organizing,data,into,manageable,units ###XID#KKF#CFB#IAN#AAC#PCV#S#SU#VRO#FNB#AQ • Chunking'works#even#beSer#if#we#can#assemble informa5on#into#meaningful#groups: ###X##IDK#KFC#FBI#BA#NAACP#CVS#SUV#ROFL#NBA#Q Effor?ul,Processing,Strategies Mnemonics Read:#plane,#cigar,#due, shall,#candy,#vague, pizza,#seem,#fire,#pencil Which#words#might#be easier#to#remember? Write#down#the#words you#can#recall. Lesson:#we#encode beSer#with#the#help#of images. A#mnemonic'is#a#memory “trick”#that#connects informa5on#to#exis5ng memory#strengths#such#as imagery#or#structure. A#peg'word'system'refers to#the#technique#of#visually associa5ng#new#words with#an...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2014 for the course PSYCH 10 taught by Professor Zaidel during the Winter '08 term at UCLA.

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