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Lecture9-M23,M24

Lecture9-M23,M24 - Module'23'Studying'and'Building Memories...

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Module 23: Studying and Building Memories To retain useful skills, knowledge, and exper5se To recognize familiar people and places To build our capacity to use language To enjoy, share, and sustain culture To build a sense of self that endures: what do I believe, value, remember, and understand? To go beyond condi5oning in learning from experience, including lessons from one’s past and from the experiences of others Why do we need to have memory?
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Three behaviors show that memory is func5oning. Recall is analogous to “fillEinEtheEblanks.” You retrieve informa5on previously learned and unconsciously stored. Recogni=on is a form of “mul5ple choice.” You iden5fy which s5muli match your stored informa5on. Relearning is a measure of how much less work it takes you to learn informa5on you had studied before, even if you don’t recall having seen the informa5on before. Studying Memory Memory: the persistence of learning over 1me, through the storage and retrieval of informa1on and skills. How Does Memory Work? An Informa=onDProcessing Model Here is a simplified descrip5on of how memory works: Encoding: the informa5on gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored Storage: the informa5on is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved Retrieval: reac5va5ng and recalling the informa5on, producing it in a form similar to what was encoded Encoding Storage Retrieval
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Models of Memory Forma=on The AtkinsonDShiffrin Model (1968) 1. S5muli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory . 2. Some of this informa5on is processed into shortDterm memory and encoded through rehearsal . 3. Informa5on then moves into longDterm memory where it can be retrieved later. Modifying the Model : More goes on in shortE term memory besides rehearsal; this is now called working memory . Some informa5on seems to go straight from sensory experience into longEterm memory; this is automa=c processing . Zooming In on the Model: From S=muli to ShortDTerm Memory Some of the s5muli we encounter are picked up by our senses and processed by the sensory organs. This generates informa5on which enters sensory memory. Before this informa5on vanishes from sensory memory, we select details to pay aSen5on to, and send this informa5on into working memory for rehearsal and other processing.
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Working Memory: Func=ons ShortEterm memory integrates informa5on from longEterm memory with new informa5on coming in from sensory memory. The shortEterm memory is “working” in many ways. It holds informa5on not just to rehearse it , but to process it (such as hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head). Central Executive Long-term Memory DualDTrack Processing: Explicit and Implicit Memories Some memories are formed without going through all the AtkinsonEShiffrin stages. These are implicit memories , the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don’t “declare”/talk about.
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