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Lecture10-M25,M26

Lecture10-M25,M26 - Module'25'Retrieval'of'Memories...

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Module 25: Retrieval of Memories Lessons from each of these demonstra/ons: 1.our storage and recall capacity is virtually unlimited 2.our capacity for recogni7on is greater than our capacity for recall 3.relearning can highlight that memories are there even if we can’t recall forming them Memory Retrieval Recall : some people, through prac/ce, visual strategies, or biological differences, have the ability to store and recall thousands of words or digits, reproducing them years later Recogni7on: the average person can view 2500 new faces and places, and later can no/ce with 90 percent accuracy which ones they’ve seen before Relearning: some people are unable to form new memories, especially of episodes; although they would not recall a puzzleEsolving lesson, they might s/ll solve the puzzle faster each lesson
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Relearning Time as a Measure of Reten7on In the late 1800s, Hermann Ebbinghaus studied another measure of memory func/oning: how much /me does it take to relearn and regain mastery of material? He studied the memoriza/on of nonsense syllables (THB YOX KVU EHM) so that depth of processing or prelearning would not be a factor. The more /mes he rehearsed out loud on day 1, the less /me he needed to relearn /memorize the same leXers on day 2. Retrieval Cues Retrieval challenge: memory is not stored as a file that can be retrieved by searching alphabe/cally. Instead, it is stored as a web of associa/ons: conceptual contextual emo/onal Memory involves a web of associated concepts.
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Study: People primed with moneyErelated words were less likely to then help another person. Study: people primed with a missing child poster then misinterpreted ambiguous adultEchild interac/ons as kidnapping. The Power of Priming Priming has been called “invisible memory” because it affects us unconsciously. We may have biases and associa/ons stored in memory that also influence our choices. Study: Priming with an image of Santa Claus led kids to share more candy. Priming: Retrieval is Affected by Ac8va8ng our Associa8ons Priming triggers a thread of associa/ons that bring us to a concept, just as a spider feels movement in a web and follows it to find the bug. Our minds work by having one idea trigger another; this maintains a flow of thought.
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ContextCDependent Memory Part of the web of associa/ons of a memory is the context . What else was going on at the 8me we formed the memory? We retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory. Did you forget a psychology concept? Just sifng down and opening your book might bring the memory back. Words learned underwater are beFer retrieved underwater. StateCDependent Memory Our memories are not just linked to the external context in which we learned them.
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