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Unformatted text preview: and y, or between the
columns of x and those of y if they are matrices or data frames
cor(x, y) linear correlation between x and y, or correlation matrix if they
are matrices or data frames
round(x, n) rounds the elements of x to n decimals
log(x, base) computes the logarithm of x with base base
scale(x) if x is a matrix, centers and reduces the data; to center only use
the option center=FALSE, to reduce only scale=FALSE (by default
center=TRUE, scale=TRUE)
pmin(x,y,...) a vector which ith element is the minimum of x[i],
y[i], . . .
pmax(x,y,...) id. for the maximum
cumsum(x) a vector which ith element is the sum from x[1] to x[i]
cumprod(x) id. for the product
cummin(x) id. for the minimum
cummax(x) id. for the maximum
union(x,y), intersect(x,y), setdiff(x,y), setequal(x,y),
is.element(el,set) “set” functions
Re(x) real part of a complex number
Im(x) imaginary part
Mod(x) modulus; abs(x) is the same
Arg(x) angle in radians of the complex number
Conj(x) complex conjugate
convolve(x,y) compute the several kinds of convolutions of two sequences fft(x) Fast Fourier Transform of an array
mvfft(x) FFT of each column of a matrix
filter(x,filter) applies linear ﬁltering to a univariate time series or
to each series separately of a multivariate time series
Many math functions have a logical parameter na.rm=FALSE to specify missing data (NA) removal. Matrices
t(x) transpose
diag(x) diagonal
%*% matrix multiplication
solve(a,b) solves a %*% x = b for x
solve(a) matrix inverse of a
rowsum(x) sum of rows for a matrixlike object; rowSums(x) is a faster
version
colsum(x), colSums(x) id. for columns
rowMeans(x) fast version of row means
colMeans(x) id. for columns Advanced data processing
apply(X,INDEX,FUN=) a vector or array or list of values obtained by
applying a function FUN to margins (INDEX) of X
lapply(X,FUN) apply FUN to each element of the list X
tapply(X,INDEX,FUN=) apply FUN to each cell of a ragged array given
by X with indexes INDEX
by(data,INDEX,FUN) apply FUN to data frame data subsetted by INDEX
merge(a,b) merge two data frames by common columns or row names
xtabs(a b,data=x) a contingency table from crossclassifying factors
aggregate(x,by,FUN) splits the data frame x into subsets, computes
summary statistics for each, and returns the result in a convenient
form; by is a list of grouping elements, each as long as the variables
in x
stack(x, ...) transform data available as separate columns in a data
frame or list into a single column
unstack(x, ...) inverse of stack()
reshape(x, ...) reshapes a data frame between ’wide’ format with
repeated measurements in separate columns of the same record and
’long’ format with the repeated measurements in separate records;
use (direction=”wide”) or (direction=”long”) Strings
paste(...) concatenate vectors after converting to character; sep= is the
string to separate terms (a single space is the default); collapse= is
an optional string to separate “collapsed” results
substr(x,start,stop) substrings in a character...
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 Fall '14

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