Lecture 1 - Module 1 The Story of Psychology From...

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Module’1: The’Story’of Psychology From’specula9on’to’science: The Birth of Modern Psychology Aristotle (4 th century BCE) asked ques9ons to understand the rela9onship between body and psyche. His way of answering those ques9ons was to observe … and make’guesses . Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1±20) added two key elements to help make psychology a science: 1.carefully measured observa9ons 2.experiments
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Two’early’schools’of’psychology Structuralism Func9onalism Structuralism’(Edward’ Tichener) Structuralists believed that the task of psychology is to iden9fy basic elements of consciousness in much the same way that physicists break down basic par9cles of maPer. Titchener, like his teacher Wilhelm Wundt, relied on “self- report” data. He had people engage in introspec5on , repor%ng on sensa%ons and other elements of experience , in reac9on to s9muli such as the smell or feel of a flower. Titchener tried to use these introspec9ve reports to build a view of the mind’s structure.
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Func9onalism’(William’James) Func9onalists believe that the task of psychology is to inves9gate the func9on, or purpose, of consciousness rather than its structure. William James (1842 - 1±10) developed func9onalism. He studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and asked: What func9on might they serve? How might they have helped our ancestors survive? James was highly influenced by Darwin’s evolu9onary theory that all all characteris9cs of a species must serve some adap9ve purpose. Psychology’Pioneers He wrote Principles of Psychology, considered the ²rst psychology textbook James mentored another pioneer William James
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Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) became a memory researcher and the frst Female president oF the APA. She studied with William James but was denied a Harvard PhD. Why? Because of her gender. Psychology’Pioneers Mary Whiton Calkins Psychology’Pioneers Margaret’ Floy Washburn, PhD Margaret ±loy Washburn (1871-1939) (±irst Female Ph.D.!), became the second Female APA president, and wrote The Animal Mind . She studied with Edward Titchener, but was barred From his experimental psychology organiza²on. Guess why.
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ShiHing’defni9ons’oF’ “psychology” Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, around 1900: “The science of mental life.” John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behaviorists , 1920’s: “The scien±²c study of observable behavior.” Cogni9ve p sychologists, 1960’s, studied internal mental processes, helped by neuroscience . ShiHing’defni9ons’oF’ “psychology” John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behaviorists , 1920’s: “The scien±²c study of observable behavior.” Now’we combine’these defni9ons: “The’science’oF behavior’and mental processes.”
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The’Big’Issue’in’Psychology:’N-N To what extent are our traits already set in place at birth (our “Nature”)?
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