Lecture17-M48,49

Biology and anxiety genes studies show that iden7cal

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Unformatted text preview: appraisals, such as seeing aches as diseases, noises as dangers, and strangers as threats Misinterpreta9ons of facial expressions and ac7ons of others, such as thinking “they’re talking about me” Biology and Anxiety: An Evolu9onary Perspec9ve 1. Human phobic objects: 2. Similar but non ­phobic objects: Snakes Fish Heights Low places Closed spaces Open spaces Darkness Bright light 3. Dangerous yet non ­phobic subjects: We are likely to become cau7ous about, but not phobic about: Guns Electric wiring Cars Evolu7onary psychologists believe that ancestors prone to fear the items on list #1 were less likely to die before reproducing. There has not been 7me for the innate fear of list #3 (the gun list) to spread in the popula7on. Biology and Anxiety: Genes Studies show that iden7cal twins, even raised separately, develop similar phobias (more similar than two unrelated people). Some people seem to have an inborn high ­ strung temperament, while others are more easygoing. Temperament may be encoded in our genes. Genes and NeurotransmiEers Genes regulate levels of neurotransmi>ers. People with anxiety have problems with a gene associated with levels of serotonin, a neurotransmi7er involved in regula4ng sleep and mood. People with anxiety also have a gene that triggers high levels of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmi7er involved in the brain’s alarm centers. Biology and Anxiety: The Brain Trauma7c experiences can burn fear circuits into the amygdala; these circuits are later triggered and ac7vated. Anxiety disorders include overarousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors. The OCD brain shows extra ac7vity in the ACC, which monitors our ac7ons and checks for errors. ACC = anterior cingulate cortex Module 49: Mood Disorders Mood Disorders Major depressive disorder [MDD] is: more than just feeling “down.” m...
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