Lecture17-M48,49

The result is a phobia or generalized anxiety we may

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Unformatted text preview: iving by avoiding danger Classical Condi9oning and Anxiety Operant Condi9oning and Anxiety In the experiment by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner in 1920, Li>le Albert learned to feel fear around a rabbit because he had been condi7oned to associate the bunny with a loud scary noise. Some7mes, such a condi7oned response becomes overgeneralized. We may begin to fear all animals, everything fluffy, and any loca7on where we had seen those, or even fear that those items could appear soon along with the noise. The result is a phobia or generalized anxiety. We may feel anxious in a situa7on and make a decision to leave. This makes us feel be>er and our anxious avoidance was just reinforced. If we know we have locked a door but feel anxious and compelled to re ­check, rechecking will help us temporarily feel be>er. The result is an increase in anxious thoughts and behaviors. Observa9onal Learning and Anxiety Experiments with humans and monkeys show that anxiety can be acquired through observa9onal learning. If you see someone else avoiding or fearing some object or creature, you might pick up that fear and adopt it even aaer the original scared person is not around. In this way, fears get passed down in families. Cogni9on and Anxiety Cogni9on includes worried thoughts, as well as interpreta7ons, appraisals, beliefs, predic7ons, and rumina7ons. Cogni9on includes mental habits such as hypervigilance (persistently watching out for danger). This accompanies anxiety in PTSD. In anxiety disorders, such cogni9ons appear repeatedly and make anxiety worse. Examples of Hypervigilance: Cogni9ve errors, such as believing that we can predict that bad events will happen Irra9onal beliefs, such as “bad things don’t happen to good people, so if I was hurt, I must be bad” Mistaken...
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