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.Joseph Haydn (1732-1809).Historical positionHaydn was the most celebrated composer of his day (see HWM Figure 23.1).He is best remembered for his symphonies and string quartets (see HWM biography, pages 528-29)..Early lifeHaydn was born near Vienna.He was a choirboy at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, where he studied singing, harpsichord, and violin.Dismissed when his voice changed, he worked freelance in Vienna and studied music.Around 1757, he became music director for Count Morzin and composed his first symphonies for him.Prince Paul Anton Esterhizy hired Haydn in 1761.Nikolaus Esterhizy succeeded his brother Paul in 1762 and became Haydn's principal patron for nearly thirty years (see HWM Source Reading, page 531).Haydn's duties for the Esterhizy family:Compose musicConduct performancesTrain and supervise musical personnelKeep the musical instruments in good conditionEsterhizaIn 1766, the Esterhizy family moved from Eisenstadt in Austria to Esterhiza, a remote country estate in Hungary (see HWM Figure 23.2).The estate, which rivaled the splendor of Versailles, had two theaters and two music rooms.Haydn built an orchestra of about twenty-five performers and gave weekly concerts, occasional opera performances, and daily chamber music sessions.Nikolaus played a large string instrument with sympathetic strings called a baryton, for which Haydn composed numerous works (see HWM Figure 23.3).Although Haydn kept abreast of current musical developments, his isolation at Esterhiza and the encouragement of his patron helped him to become original.A new contract in 1779 allowed Haydn to publish his music in major European centers, which further enhanced his reputation.Prince Nikolaus died in 1790, and Haydn was given permission to live in Vienna..LondonJohann Peter Salomon, a violinist and impresario, persuaded Haydn to come to London for concert tours between 1791 and 1795.For the London concerts, Haydn composed numerous new works, including his last twelve symphonies.Haydn and his music were received with great acclaim in London..Haydn's Style
.Although his music relied on contemporary conventions, Haydn frequently introduced the unexpected..Sources of Haydn's style (see HWM Source Reading, page 532)The galant styleThe expressiveness of the empfindsam styleBaroque counterpointGeneric clichés.String Quartet in E-flat Major, Op. 3, No. 2 (The Joke), finale (see NAWM 111 and HWM Example 23.1)The rondo form is an ABACA form.The binary opening theme has a playful, unfinished character.The two episodes do not introduce new material.Much of the material of the movement is derived from the idea introduced in the first two measures, an indication of Haydn's sense of economy and novelty.Haydn heightens drama with extensions and delay.The exaggerated drama is humorous, creating a witty effect.