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Zoonosis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search "Zoonotic" redirects here. For the television episode, see Zoonotic (Law & Order: Criminal Intent) . Zoonosis Other names Zoönosis A dog with rabies . Pronunciation /zo n s s, ʊˈɒ ə ɪ zo no s s/ ˌ ʊəˈ ʊ ɪ [1] Specialty Infectious disease A zoonosis (plural zoonoses , or zoonotic diseases ) is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen (an infectious agent, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite or prion ) that has jumped from an animal (usually a vertebrate ) to a human. [1] [2] [3] Typically, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to at least one other human, who, in turn, infects others. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now mutated to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of bird flu and swine flu are zoonoses; these viruses occasionally recombine with human strains of the flu and can cause pandemics such as the 1918 Spanish flu or the 2009 swine flu . [4] Taenia solium infection is one of the neglected tropical diseases with public health and veterinary concern in endemic regions. [5] Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as emergent viruses , bacteria, fungi and parasites; of
1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% were zoonotic. [6] Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve non-human to human transmission, such as rabies , are considered direct zoonosis. [7] Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through media such as air ( influenza ) or through bites and saliva ( rabies ). [8] In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector ), which carry the disease pathogen without getting sick. When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis . [9] The term is from Greek : ζ ον zoon "animal" and νόσος nosos "sickness". Host genetics plays an important role in determining which animal viruses will be able to make copies of themselves in the human body. Dangerous animal viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses are dangerous since the required combinations of mutations might randomly arise in the natural reservoir. [10] Recently, there has been a rise in frequency of appearance of new zoonotic diseases. According to a report from the United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute named: "Preventing the next pandemic – Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission" the causes are mostly environmental.

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