Chapter 11 - Transcription and Translation

Single gene caused by a single substitution in an

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Unformatted text preview: gene caused by a single substitution in an amino acid sequence of a single protein Flow of Information o o o Messenger RNA is an intermediate between a gene and a polypeptide Transcription is the process by which RNA is formed from a DNA template Translation is the process by which proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm from an mRNA template RNA o o o Three classes of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA rRNA recognizes other molecules, provides structural support in the ribosome, and catalyzes amino acid linkage tRNA is required to translate information from mRNA to amino acids Transcription o o o the process by which RNA is formed from a DNA template only one strand of DNA is used as a template template strand, other strand is a non coding strand begins with RNA polymerase which binds the template strand and begins to produce complementary RNA 1 o DNA dependent RNA polymerases (RNA polymerases) are responsible for transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes RNA Polymerases o o o o o o o o o o RNA polymerases incorporate nucleotides into a strand of RNA from a DNA template They are multi subunit complexes Typically complexed with other factors these signal which gene to transcribe RNA chain grows in a 5 to 3 direction, antiparallel to DNA RNA polymerase must be processive remain attached to DNA over long stretches RNA polymerase must be able to move from nucleotide to nucleotide These enzymes incorporate nucleotides into a strand of RNA from a DNA template the promoter is wher...
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This document was uploaded on 04/10/2014.

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