Chapter 10 Outline.docx - Chapter 10 Outline Lecture...

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Chapter 10 OutlineLecture OutlineI. The Brain and Cranial NervesA. The brain and cranial nerves represent the major control systems of the nervous system.B. The brain acts more as the main processor and director of the entire system.C. The cranial nerves leave the brain and go to specific body areas, where they receiveinformation and send it back to the brain (sensory), and the brain sends instructions to move(motor).D. At the top of the spinal cord, beginning at the level of the foramen magnum and filling theskull, is the brain.E. The Brain's External Anatomy1.Cerebruma. Largest part of the brainb. Divided into the right and lefthemisphereby thelongitudinalfissurec. Divided from the cerebellum by thetransverse fissured. Convoluted surface of the cerebrum is not smooth.i. Ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci)ii. Increase surface area of the brain.iii. Most sulci are extremely variable in their locations among humans.e.Lobesi. Lobes are named for the skull bones that cover them and occur in pairs, one ineach hemisphere.ii.Frontal: anterior, separated from the rest of the brain by the central sulci,responsible for motor activities, conscious thought, and speechiii.Parietal: posterior to frontal lobes, involved with body sense perception, andspeechiv.Occipital: posterior to parietal lobes, responsible for visionv.Temporal: inferior lobes, separated by the lateral sulci, involved in hearingand integration of emotionsvi.Insula: deep inside the temporal lobes, autonomic functionsf. On either side of the central sulcus are two gyri: theprecentral gyrus, anterior tothecentral sulcus, and thepostcentral gyrus, posterior to the central sulcus.g. Speech areasi.Broca’s: frontal area, motor for speechii.Wernicke’s: parietal, understanding languageh. Information is contralateral, meaning the right side of the body is controlled by theleft side of cerebrum, and vice versa.2.Cerebelluma. Posterior to the cerebrumb. Divided into hemispheres by a raised ridge called the vermisc. Surface is convoluted, similar to the cerebrum.d. Cerebellum is involved in sensory and motor coordination and balance.3.Brain stema. A stalk-like structure inferior to and partially covered by the cerebrumb. Three sections:
C. The Brain's Internal Anatomy
1. White matter of the brain is surrounded by gray matter.2.Cortex: layer of grey matter surrounding the white mattera.Cerebralcortexb.Cerebellarcortex3.Nuclei: deep islands of gray matter surrounded by white matter4.Ventriclesa. Fluid-filled cavities in the brainb. Continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord and thesubarachnoidspaceof both the brain and the spinal cord

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Term
Summer
Professor
Dawn Goodsell

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