Human Immunity.docx - HUMAN IMMUNITY 1 Human Immunity...

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HUMAN IMMUNITY 1 Human Immunity Student’s Name Professor Course Date
HUMAN IMMUNITY 2 Human Immunity Immune system refers to a network of complex blood cells and proteins that work in conjunction to protect the body against any external invaders and harmful toxins from the surrounding. External substances that stimulate the production of immune response are known as antigens and a human immune system main role is to identify antigens and trigger the necessary immune response. The defenses used to attack pathogens are categorized into three parts; the first line, second line, and line defense. Each line of defense responds to pathogens differently, either as barriers, specific responders or non-specific. The paper will tackle a broad analysis of immune system including lines of defense, transplant rejection, immune system disorders, categories of immunity and the effectiveness of vaccinations among others. SECTION ONE; Describe the first line and the second line of defenses against diseases
HUMAN IMMUNITY 3 The second line of defense encounters the pathogens that manage to successfully cross the physical barrier. This line of defense involves non-specific response of the inherent immune system against infections. The immune cells and proteins involved in the second line of defense do not differentiate types of pathogens and elicit the same reaction on every pathogen. The innate immune system uses a special kind of immune cells known as phagocytes (Becattini et al., 2017) . These cells are found in the blood and body tissue and are divided into two; the neutrophils and macrophages. In the beginning the phagocytes recognize the pathogens and bind them then a plasma membrane is used to surround and engulf the bound pathogens in the cells. As a result, phagosome, an internal compartment is generated which merges with another cellular compartment known as lysosome which has a digestive enzymes that destroys pathogens by fragmentizing them into un-harmful pieces. Digestion of fragmented pathogens inside the

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