Philosophy of Religion and EpistemologyA.Cosmological arguments1.Does God exist?2.Because there is a universe, God must exist2.i. Core of all cosmological argumentsB.Summa Theologiae1.Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)1.i. His work was eventually taken as exemplary for the Catholic church1.ii.Gave five ways to argue that the existence of God can be proven•Theistic argument2.Things in motion2.i. If ais in motion, then it must have been moved by something else, or b2.ii.If bis in motion, then it must have been moved by something else, or c2.iii.Water can only be boiled by something that is itself boiling hot2.iv.…cba•Sets up a regress, or a going back2.v.Either the regress keeps going back or it stops•According to Aquinas, the regress must stop at some point2.vi.The first, unmoved mover must be a special object that is different from everything else2.vii.God means the “first, unmoved mover,” so God exists•However, the definition of God is not necessarily “the first, unmoved mover”•Calls his argument into question2.viii.An object is in a state of potentiality if it is not yet that other thing•An acorn is in the state of potentiality of becoming a tree, but it is in the state of actuality of being an acorn2.ix.Nothing can be in a state of potentiality of being something while being in a state of actuality of being that thing•Water cannot be potentially boiling while being actually boiling3.Unmoved movers are often objects of desire, longing, or yearning3.i. Does God represent an unmoved mover for humans and for all creation?4.If there was a train moved by a train moved by a train…, must have been moving forever4.i. Aquinas doesn’t believe they were moving forever because the trains go on forever•There is no engine!4.ii.Aristotle’s law of inertia: a body, not acted on by any force, remains at absolute restC.Clarke’s cosmological argument1.Dependent being: a being whose existence is explained by the causal activity of other things1.i. Such as a human being2.Self-existent being: a being whose existence is explained by itself, i.e., by its own nature2.i. Such as a triangle or a fire3.Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR)
3.i. PSR1: For every being that exists or ever existed, there is an explanation of the existence of that being3.ii.PSR2: For every positive fact, there is an explanation of that fact•Positive fact: a fact whose obtaining entails the existence of at least one contingent being-Contingent being: a being such that it is logically possible for that being to exist and it is logically possible for that being not to exist-A positive fact is a real fact about a real thing4.C1. Every being (that exists or ever existed) is either a dependent being or a self-existent being4.i. This fact can be assumed to be true because can be seen as a tautology4.ii.However, this premise rules out the possibility that there are beings that exist and have no explanation at all4.iii.