ReviewMid-Term

ReviewMid-Term - Themes There will be two study themes for...

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Unformatted text preview: Themes There will be two study themes for part 1 of mid-term exam, Tuesday, February 13: Review for Mid-term Examination 1. Comparative cultural features of the four notable civilizations 2. Subsistence in early African history Themes How the exam will be structured, 1 For part 2 of the mid-term exam, Thursday, February 15, there will be four study themes: 3. Technology in early African history 4. Early cities and states in Africa, 3500 BCE to 300 CE The first part of the exam, on Tuesday, February 13, will have two sections: In Section A, there will be one question dealing with theme 1 on the previous slide. Everyone will answer this question To prepare yourself for answering it, you will need to learn and be able to describe the notable features of culture that are characteristic of each of the different civilizations we have considered Afrasan, Khoisan, Niger-Congo, and Sudanic You will want to know about these ideas and practices as they had developed by about 5000 BCE 5. The rise of long distance commerce and its historical consequences for Africa, 1000 BCE to 300 CE 6. Cross-cultural encounters in early African history How the exam will be structured, 2 How the exam will be structured, 3 In Section B, there will be two questions, both dealing with theme 2, "Subsistence in early African history" You will be asked to answer just one of the two questions in Section B Choose the question you feel most comfortable answering The second part of the exam, on Thursday, February 15, will contain four questions, one for each of the themes 3-6 You will be asked to answer two of the four questions 1 Let's move on to consider what topics will included in each of the six thematic areas Study themes for 1st part of mid-term, February 13 This will help you to better focus your preparation for the exam Theme 1--Comparative cultural features of the four notable civilizations This theme will require learning the different notable cultural features that are characteristic of and were anciently present in each of the civilizations: Customs, religious beliefs, social organization, positions of authority, crafts and manufacturing skills, building styles, residential patterns, art, and music Table 1 on pp. 101-102 in the text gives brief identifications of these kinds of features, but you will also want to study the fuller descriptions in the text and in the class notes on line Possible kinds of question to be asked: Comparison and contrast Descriptive Theme 2: Subsistence in early African History, 1 Sub-themes: things to think about and questions to ask yourself Origins and development of Sudanic cattle raising and cultivation of crops Where and when did these first develop? Which peoples do we associate with the creation and development of this way of life? What were the stages in the development of Sudanic agricultural ways of life? What were the animals and crops of the Sudanic pastoralists and farmers? Theme 2: Subsistence in early African History, 2 Theme 2: Subsistence in early African History, 3 Sub-themes continued: The Aquatic way of life as an alternative to Sudanic agripastoralism and agriculture What was the Aquatic subsistence system? What kinds of food and what techniques and tools were important to it? Why were Aquatic peoples able to successfully carry on their way of life for over 2000 years after the first raising of cattle by the Northern Sudanians began? What happened that shifted the balance of advantage to the Sudanic herding and farming peoples? When? Sub-themes continued: Origins and development of West African planting agriculture Where and when did it first develop? Peoples of which civilization invented this kind of agriculture? What were the notable crops of West African planting agriculture? Which animal did the West Africans domesticate? What development in tool technology enabled the spread of West African planting agriculture into rainforest environments? 2 Theme 2: Subsistence in early African History, 4 Sub-themes continued: Agricultural invention in the Horn of Africa Origins and development of Omotic agriculture Where and when did it first develop? Which peoples invented this kind of agriculture? To what civilization were they connected? What were the notable crops of Omotic agriculture? Study themes for 2nd part of mid-term, February 15 Cushitic agriculture What new crops did the cattle-herding Cushitic peoples begin to cultivate when they moved up into the Ethiopian highlands? (t'ef, finger millet) What notable animal did they contribute to the world? (donkey) Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 1 Sub-themes: Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 2 The invention of ceramic technology (pottery, etc): Ceramics Where and when did it take place? Textile weaving Which peoples were responsible for the creation of this technology? Tool technologies and subsistence strategies in history Innovations in the technologies of carrying out farming Technological developments in architecture and building Technological innovation and commerce Technology and the artist's craft What was the significance for economy and everyday life of this invention? What role did potters play in the emergence of the West African commercial revolution? Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 3 Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 4 Technologies of textile weaving Textile weaving on looms developed independently in two separate areas of Africa The weaving of raffia cloth on broadlooms: Where did this arise? The weaving of cotton fabrics on narrow looms: Where did this technology get invented? How long ago? What was the significance of African textiles for economic history? In the rise of commerce? Tool technologies and subsistence strategies in history: Questions to think about-- What were the tools that made the Aquatic way of life successful? Bone harpoons, shell fishhooks. Any others? What was the significance of the invention of polished stone blades for agricultural history in West Africa and the equatorial rainforest? When did iron hoes come into use? What impact did they have on African agricultural production and economic history? 3 Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 5 Innovations in the technologies of carrying out farming: notable developments-- Early use of the Nile and its floods in farming in Egypt and Nubia The adoption of the saqiya (waterwheel) for irrigation along the Nile: When? What were the consequences of this development? Stone terracing of hillside fields, irrigation, and manuring in the regions of the Ethiopia Rift Valley: What took place there? When? Rice farming in the tideland areas of West Africa: What were the techniques? Building of dams for reservoirs and irrigation in Meroe Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 6 Technological developments in architecture and building Developments along the Nile: Burial mounds and monuments; pyramids; temples; obelisks; the use of the arch and of pillars in large buildings How were these practices applied in Napata and Meroe? Developments in Aksum Stele The use of drywall (ashalar) masonry in the building of palaces The carving of shrines and ritual sites out of solid rock Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 7 Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 8 Technological innovation and commerce Manufacturing technologies and the production of commercial goods: How fundamental were these to the West African commercial revolution? Metallurgy Copper; iron Jewelry made from copper; tools made from iron Bead-making technologies: where were some of the important places for this kind of manufacture in the 2nd and 1st millenniums BCE? Boat building Where were watercraft particularly important? What were some notable developments in boat construction? What impact did boats have on the rise of commerce? (Hint: boats were key means of transport of goods over long distances) Where were boats fundamentally important? (in the Mediterranean, along the Nile, along the Niger, in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea) Can you think of any other technological developments of significance in the rise of commercial relations? Theme 3: Technology in early African history, 9 Theme 4--Early cities and states in Africa, 3500 BCE to 300 CE, 1 Sub-themes: things to think about and questions to ask yourself Technology and the artist's craft States and towns along the Nile before 3100 BCE What effects did the development of the age of metals have on sculpting technology? Terracotta sculpture: Where? When? What new kind of subjects were sculpted? How did this development fit in with other developments of the period? Sculpting in metals? That's mostly a story for the second half of the course Ta-Seti kingdom. Qustul. Shaheinab Ancient Egypt and its relations with the kingdoms of Nubia, 3100 to 800 BCE The Old Kingdom period in Egypt. Yam and Wawat in Nubia What was the nature and function of the early cities on the Nile? The Middle Kingdom period in Egypt. Kerma and Sai in Nubia The New Kingdom in Egypt. Its conquest and destruction of Kerma 4 Theme 4--Early cities and states in Africa, 3500 BCE to 300 CE, 2 Theme 4--Early cities and states in Africa, 3500 BCE to 300 CE, 3 Questions and issues What kinds of beliefs and institutions supported the legitimacy of the state: In ancient Egypt? In states such as Ta-Seti, Kerma, Napata, and Meroe to the south of Egypt? In Aksum? What differing kinds of material bases supported the rule of kings in the various early African states? In the Old Kingdom in Egypt? In the New Kingdom? In Napata? In Meroe? In Aksum? Sub-themes continued: The Napata and Meroitic empires in Nubia, 800 BCE to 300 CE In what way was Meroe a new kind of city? (hint: it was a commercial and manufacturing center as well as a center of government) Yeha and Aksum (Axum): early trading cities in the northern Ethiopian highlands The kingdom of Aksum (Axum) Theme 5--The rise of long distance commerce and its consequences for Africa, 1000 BCE to 300 CE, 1 Theme 5--The rise of long distance commerce and its consequences for Africa, 1000 BCE to 300 CE, 2 Issues and questions How did the rise of long-distance commerce change the way ideas and goods spread from place to place? How did it change the way trade was carried on? The big topics to consider: The "First Commercial Revolution" of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the first millennium BCE West Africa's separate commercial revolution during the same period How did it change the material basis of state formation? What new social and economic class came into being because of the development of long-distance commerce? New kinds of cities grew up because of long-distance commerce. What was different about them in comparison to earlier cities? Where in Africa did the new kinds of cities appear? Theme 5--The rise of long distance commerce and its consequences for Africa, 1000 BCE to 300 CE, 3 Theme 5--The rise of long distance commerce and its consequences for Africa, 1000 BCE to 300 CE, 4 Issues and questions continued: What kinds of manufactured goods and raw materials dominated in the products of trade: In Meroe? In Aksum? In West Africa? How did the rise of specialist producers of manufactured goods stimulate the independent West African development of commerce? What kind of goods were important in early West African long-distance commerce? Issues and questions continued: Why did the city of Jenne grow into an important trading center? (hint: it was a trans-shipment point and it lay a crossroads of trade) What was different about the ways the first cities in West Africa developed? (hint: they arose out of village clusters, in which different kinds of skilled workers each occupied a different village) What unique kinds of social groups and classes arose in the early West African commercial centers? What sorts of political consequences did the emergence of commerce have in West Africa? 5 Theme 6--Cross-cultural encounters in early African history, 1 Examples of important cross-cultural encounters Relations between the peoples of the northern Middle Nile Basin and ancient Egyptians: Early Sudanic influences on the evolution of kingship in Egypt before 3100 BCE In later periods, a reverse flow of ideas from Egypt to Sudanic peoples along the Nile: Especially during the period of Egyptian colonial conquest and rule of Nubia from the 1520s to the twelfth century BCE Religious syncretism and Egyptian influences on art in Napata and Meroe The adapting of Egyptian Demotic script to write the language of Meroe New technology: the waterwheel Theme 6--Cross-cultural encounters in early African history, 2 Examples continued: The interactions of Omotic farmers (the Ometo) with Cushitic cultivators and herders (the Highland East Cushites), 2000-500 BCE and later. Results and effects: Both sets of peoples participated in the invention of a highly productive new agricultural system with new kinds of agricultural technology The raising of both enset and Cushitic grain crops Stone-walled terraced fields Irrigation Use of cattle manure to maintain lasting fertility of the fields Application of stone building technologies in walls and paving of roads Blending of Omotic and Cushitic beliefs and social ideas Theme 6--Cross-cultural encounters in early African history, 3 Examples continued: The kingdom of Aksum Adoption in the emerging city-states of the northern Horn between 500 BCE and 100 CE of political institutions and ideology brought in by South Arabian merchant settlers Adoption over the long term of the Semitic language of these settlers, first as a "lingua franca" and then in government and gradually by the general population of the Aksumite kingdom, founded in around the first century CE Religious syncretism in early Askum (before 350 CE), blending some South Arabian ideas with earlier Cushitic beliefs Adoption of South Arabian construction techniques for public buildings Theme 6--Cross-cultural encounters in early African history, 4 Examples continued: The "Classical Age" of eastern and southern African history: The encounter of Mashariki Bantu communities with Central Sudanian, Eastern Sahelian, and Cushitic societies in and around the African Great lakes region in the last 1000 years BCE, led to: a new mixed and varied array of agricultural practices, particularly among the Mashariki peoples the spread of cultural features from peoples of one civilization to peoples of another civilization, such as: House-building styles New kinds of household furnishings (stools, beds) Religious beliefs New technology (iron working) New kinds of useful goods (iron hoes, barrel-shaped beehives) the expansion of Mashariki Bantu speaking communities widely across eastern and southern Africa from 300 BCE onward (Why was that wide expansion able to take place?) 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST M10A taught by Professor Ehret during the Winter '08 term at UCLA.

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