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Astro 5 Midterm Review

Astro 5 Midterm Review - Astro 5 Midterm Review By David...

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Astro 5: Midterm Review By David Rodriguez Note: Although this summarizes the major concepts we have talked about, there is more information that has been given both in the book and in the lectures. This should serve only as a guide or a quick refresher on what you should already know. I. General Astronomy Concepts (Chpt 1-3) a. The Scientific Method i. A hypothesis makes predictions which lead to observations . These observations then lead to refinement of the original hypothesis and the cycle repeats itself. b. Distance scales i. A light-year is a unit of distance equal to 6 trillion miles. This is the amount of distance light (traveling at a speed of 186,000 miles per second [300,000 km/s]) travels in one year. ii. An astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This is about 93 million miles (150 million km). c. Planet formation (pg. 74-80) i. Planets form by accreting material that has formed a disk around the star. ii. Jovian planets formed farther from the Sun than the terrestrial planets. The Jovian planets were able to grow from large amounts of icy rocks and got massive enough to capture large atmospheres of hydrogen and helium. d. Atoms and elements i. Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 1. protons carry positive charge while neutrons are neutral 2. electrons carry negative charge 3. protons and neutrons make up most of the mass of atoms ii. Early universe had only Hydrogen and Helium, stars and supernovae produced all the other elements. iii. Molecules are formed from 2 or more elements (not necessarily different). Ex: water (H 2 O), methane (CH 4 ), ozone (O 3 ) e. Phases i. Solid, liquid, gas ii. Melting, freezing, evaporation, sublimation f. Energy i. Is conserved; it cannot be created or destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another ii. Forms of energy: kinetic, radiative, and potential g. We can study distant objects by studying the light from them. Using spectroscopy we can determine what they are made of (among other things).
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II. History of Scientific Knowledge (Chpt 2) a. Ancient Greeks- began thinking about how the world works, devised the geocentric model of the universe (Earth-centered) b. Copernicus- proposed the heliocentric model c. Tycho- made observations of planetary motions which allowed Kepler to derive his three laws d. Kepler’s Laws i. Orbits are ellipses, not circles, with the Sun at one focus ii. As a planet orbits, a line connecting it to the Sun traces out equal areas in equal times (thus the speed at which a planet orbits changes with time). The closer planets move faster than those farther away. iii. The period of the orbit is related to the semimajor axis (half of the long axis passing through both foci in an ellipse). In mathematical form: P 2 =a 3 , with P in years and a in astronomical units.
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