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Problem Set 1 Solutions 1. Chloroplasts in plant cells, mitochondria in animal cells. A phototroph gets energy from light. A chemotroph gets energy from chemical fuel. 2. Primitive eukaryote engulfed bacteria. (endosymbiotic theory) Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are produced by replication, have own DNA and ribosomes, similar to bacteria and can replicate DNA and produce own proteins. 3. Rates of diffusion of necessary cellular components limit the upper size of cells. Ratio of surface area: volume changes with size. 4. Flagella—motility Pili—adhesion Granules—storage of lipids and carbohydrates Plasmids—drug resistance Convoluted Inner Membrane—Photosynthesis & energy production 5. Golgi—protein and lipid transport ER—protein and lipid synthesis Nucleus—DNA replication and RNA synthesis Mitochondria—ATP production Peroxisomes—Detoxify oxygen radicals and peroxide Glyoxysomes—Convert stored fats to carbohydrates in plants Cytoskeleton—Provide structure of cell and generate internal and external movement Endomembrane System—Synthesis and localization of proteins and lipids 6. Permeability barrier, selective transport of molecules in and out of the cell, maintain charge gradient, cell shape and movement, receptors for cell-cell communication, and location of membrane-associated enzyme reactions. 7. Electrostatic interactions: Interaction of permanent charges (Charge-Charge, Charge- Dipole, Dipole-Dipole) Van der waals interactions: Weak attractive forces formed by a transient dipole atom and an induced dipole in a closely neighboring atom Hydrogen bonds: Attractive interactions between a hydrogen covalently attached to one molecule and an electronegative atom on another molecule or part of the molecule (in biological systems, usually an O or N) Hydrophobic interactions: Clustering of nonpolar components away from water. 8. Biomolecular interactions are mediated by weak forces because these forces are more easily reversed or modified allowing for more dynamic systems. Hydrophobic