Phung Thanh Khoa - IUChemistry for Engineers1Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Phung Thanh Khoa - IUPhung Thanh Khoa - IULearning outcomes•Learn the basic postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory.•Describe the key experiments that led to the discovery of electrons and the nuclear model of theatom.•Describe the structure of the atom in terms of protons, neutrons, and electrons and express therelative electrical charges and masses of these subatomic particles.•Use chemical symbols together with atomic number and mass number to express the subatomiccomposition of isotopes.•Calculate the atomic weight of an element from the masses of individual atoms and a knowledgeof natural abundances.•Describe how elements are organized in the periodic table by atomic number and by similaritiesin chemical behavior, giving rise to periods and groups.•Identify the locations of metals and nonmetals in the periodic table.•Distinguish between molecular substances and ionic substances in terms of their composition.•Distinguish between empirical formulas and molecular formulas.•Describe how molecular formulas and structural formulas are used to represent thecompositions of molecules.•Explain how ions are formed by the gain or loss of electrons and use the periodic table to predictthe charges of common ions.•Write the empirical formulas of ionic compounds, given the charges of their component ions.•Write the name of an ionic compound given its chemical formula or write the chemical formulagiven its name.•Name or write chemical formulas for binary inorganic compounds and for acids.•Identify organic compounds and name simple alkanes and alcohols.2
Phung Thanh Khoa - IUPhung Thanh Khoa - IUHypothesis, Theory andLaw in Science3
Phung Thanh Khoa - IUPhung Thanh Khoa - IUTerminology•Thescientific method-a systematic approach to research•Ahypothesis- a tentative explanation for a set of observations.•Alaw-a concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relationshipbetween phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions.•Atheoryisa unifying principle that explains a body of facts and /or thoselaws that are based on them.4
Phung Thanh Khoa - IUPhung Thanh Khoa - IUAtomic Theory of Matter5•Democritus (Greek philosopher) believed that there was a smallestparticle— “atomos” (uncuttable, indivisible)—that made up all ofnature.•Experiments in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to anorganized atomic theory by John Dalton in the early 1800s, whichexplained several laws known at that time:–The law of constant composition–The law of conservation of mass–The law of multiple proportionsLaw of Constant CompositionAlso known asthe law of definite proportions.