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Unformatted text preview: The Scorecard on Globalization 1980-2000: Twenty Years of Diminished Progress By Mark Weisbrot, Dean Baker, Egor Kraev, and Judy Chen Mark Weisbrot and Dean Baker are Co-Directors of the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR). Egor Kraev and Judy Chen are Research Associates. The authors would like to thank Robert Naiman, Gila Neta, Lisa Smith and Andrea Blatchford for their comments, research and editorial assistance. cepr C ENT ER FOR E CONOMIC AND P OLICY R ESEARCH Briefing Paper &#1; &#1; WWW . CEPR . NET &#1; EMAIL : CEPR @ CEPR . NET July 11, 2001 1611 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, NW, SUITE 400 CENTER FOR ECONOMIC AND POLICY RESEARCH WASHINGTON, D.C. (202)293-5380 2 Executive Summary It is commonly accepted that the increased opening to international trade and financial flows that has occurred in the vast majority of countries in the world has been an overall success. Even critics of globalization have generally accepted that the reforms of the last two decades, in low to middle-income countries, have boosted economic growth rates. They have argued that this growth has left many people behind, and has often been at the expense of the natural environment. This paper looks at the major economic and social indicators for all countries for which data are available, and compares the last 20 years of globalization (1980-2000) with the previous 20 years (1960-1980). These indicators include: the growth of income per person, life expectancy, mortality among infants, children, and adults, literacy, and education. For economic growth and almost all of the other indicators, the last 20 years have shown a very clear decline in progress as compared with the previous two decades. For each indicator, countries were divided into five roughly equal groups, according to what level the countries had achieved by the start of the period (1960 or 1980). Among the findings: Growth: The fall in economic growth rates was most pronounced and across the board for all groups or countries . The poorest group went from a per capita GDP growth rate of 1.9 percent annually in 1960-80, to a decline of 0.5 percent per year (1980-2000). For the middle group (which includes mostly poor countries), there was a sharp decline from an annual per capita growth rate of 3.6 percent to just less than 1 percent. Over a 20-year period, this represents the difference between doubling income per person, versus increasing it by just 21 percent. The other groups also showed substantial declines in growth rates. Life Expectancy : Progress in life expectancy was also reduced for 4 out of the 5 groups of countries, with the exception of the highest group (life expectancy 69-76 years). The sharpest slowdown was in the second to worst group (life expectancy between 44-53 years). Reduced progress in life expectancy and other health outcomes cannot be explained by the AIDS pandemic....
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course SOC 0005 taught by Professor Babones during the Spring '08 term at Pittsburgh.
- Spring '08