Unformatted text preview: s with hydrogen. (CH4) [He] 2s22p2 [He] 2s 2p (hybrid orbitals form) [He] 2s22p2 [He] H sp3 sp3 sp3 sp3 3 hybrid bonds) H -- C -- H (all four of the covalent bonds are sp Created from 1 s and 3 H p-orbitals 31 32 p.317 4 RHED 33 p.317 Hybrid Orbitals: (Valence Bond Theory)
Nitrogen will form three covalent bonds with hydrogen (NH3) [He] 2s22p3 [He] 2s 2p (hybrid orbitals form) [He] 2s22p3 [He] sp3 sp3 sp3 sp3 (this sp3 orbital occupies the lone pair) H -- N -- H (all three of the covalent bonds are sp3 hybrid bonds) H
34 4 RHED 35 p.323 Hybrid Orbitals: (Valence Bond Theory)
Oxygen will form three covalent bonds with hydrogen (H2O) 2p [He] 2s22p4 [He] 2s (hybrid orbital form) sp3 [He] 2s22p4 [He] sp3 sp3 sp3 (these sp3 orbitals occupy the lone pairs) H -- O -- H (both of the covalent bonds are sp3 hybrid bonds.) 36 4 RHED 37 p.325 Created from 1 s and 3 p and 1 ddorbitals. 38 p.327 5 RHED 39 p.328 Created from 1 s and 3 p and 2 ddorbitals.
40 p.331 6 RHED 41 p.332 42 Table 8-2, p.310 Double and Triple Bonds
When more than one bond is formed between two atoms, the bonding occurs through a -bond and a -bond (pi bond). Pi bonding occurs when electrons in two p-orbitals ppair by overlapping side by side. 43 44 Triple bonds occur when two -bonds are formed. a) The two atoms are held together by one bond and two perpendicular -bonds. The overall structure of the three bonds resembles a cylindrical hot dog. b) When the three bonds are put together, the two -bonds merge to form a long doughnut-shaped cloud surrounding the -bond 45 cloud. Sigma and Pi bonds
Overall A single bond is a -bond. 1. bond. A double bond is a -bond plus one -bond 2.
3. A triple bond is a -bond plus two -bonds. bonds. Example: How many sigma and pi bonds in each of the following molecules? CH3CH2CH3; CH2CHCH3, CHCCH3; CH2CCH2 46 Molecu...
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