Milestone practice.docx - Milestone practice 18 questions were answered correctly 7 questions were answered incorrectly 1 \u201cAlthough I am not an

Milestone practice.docx - Milestone practice 18 questions...

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Milestone practice 18 questions were answered correctly . 7 questions were answered incorrectly . 1 “Although I am not an atheist, I believe that man’s ingenuity is more reliable than superstitious beliefs about the gods.” The ancient philosopher most likely to make this statement was __________. Thales Protagoras Empedocles Xenophanes RATIONALE Xenophanes was a Pre-Socratic philosopher who questioned divine explanations for natural phenomena. While he was not an atheist, he maintained that it is better to rely on observation and reason than to interpret events as signs from the gods or evidence of their intervention. CONCEPT Cosmology and the First Philosophers 2 Several hours of heavy rain is a __________ condition for a wet yard. Choose the answer that correctly completes this sentence. both necessary and sufficient sufficient, not necessary necessary, not sufficient neither necessary nor sufficient RATIONALE Several hours of heavy rain will always make the yard wet, so this a sufficient condition, or logical guarantee, for a wet yard. However, not all wet yards are caused by heavy rain, so heavy rain is not a necessary condition, or logical requirement, for a wet yard. CONCEPT Plato: An academic approach to concepts 3 Budapest is a city in Hungary. Roland was born in Budapest.
Therefore, Roland was born in Hungary. Assuming that both premises are true, evaluate the argument and determine which of the answer options describes it. Deductive, invalid, unsound Inductive, strong, cogent Inductive, weak, uncogent Deductive, valid, sound RATIONALE The inferential claim in this example is one of logical certainty, and is about definition and form rather than cause and effect. As a result, this a deductive argument. Because a case cannot exist in which the premises are true and the conclusion is false, this argument is valid. Also, this argument is sound because the premises are true. CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument in Action 4 All of the statements are central themes of Parmenidean metaphysics, EXCEPT: The world we sense is genuine. The opinions of mortal men are universally unreliable. The universe is one, unchanging entity. The Parmenidean worldview contradicts the world we are familiar with. RATIONALE Parmenidean metaphysics establishes a division between the mortal world (i.e., the world of the senses) and reality. Reality is "what is;" it is eternal and unchanging. The world of the senses is "what is not," a transient and illusory world of change. Therefore, Parmenides would not say that the world we sense is genuine. All of the other statements accurately represent Parmenidean metaphysics. CONCEPT Parmenides and the Doctrine of Permanence 5 Philosophy pursues __________ by using logic, reasoning, and critical thinking. opinion reality science
wisdom RATIONALE Philosophy is a field of study that pursues wisdom, as evidenced by the root words of its name. "Philosophy" comes from two Greek words, philos (meaning "love") and sophia (meaning "wisdom"). Science, reality, and

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