PHILOSOPHY MILESTONEYou passed this Milestone25 questions were answered correctly.1According to Plato’s doctrine of the Forms, is Leonardo da Vinci's painting, the Mona Lisa, beauty?Yes, if each individual applies his or her concept of beauty to the painting.No, because not everyone agrees that it represents that which is beautiful.No, because it only participates in the Form of Beauty.Yes, if beauty represents all that is good in Platonic Heaven.RATIONALEPlato's doctrine of the Forms states that the essences of all things, including beauty, exist in Platonic Heaven. Worldly objects are what they are because they participate in their corresponding Form. The Mona Lisa is a beautiful painting because it participates, or imitates, the Form of Beauty. It is not, in itself, beauty. CONCEPTApplying Plato's Metaphysics2Nancy is a cashier at a grocery store. A boy from her school, who she knows is underage, attempts to buy beer. Nancy hesitates before completing the transaction. According to Aristotle’s ethics, which question should Nancy ask herself?Are there possible consequences of this action that could harm me?What kind of person should I be?How can I reach a compromise? Why is this action right, and why is it wrong?RATIONALEAristotelian ethics are primarily concerned with character. As a result, Nancy should ask herself “What kind of person should I be?” rather than “How should I act?”According to Aristotelian ethics, actions are evaluated based on how they inform your character. Therefore, Nancy must determine what kind of person she wants to be and what virtues she wants to cultivate, and then act accordingly.CONCEPTApplying Aristotle's Ethics3Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism?To let go of what we cannot control
To feed our desiresTo resist playing a roleTo understand that reality is either good or badRATIONALEStoicism is a philosophy that encourages us to focus only on what we can control (e.g., our desires, emotions, judgments, and reactions). We should not be upset by things thatare beyond our control. Stoicism encourages us to reduce desire and to view reality as neither good nor bad.CONCEPTStoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion4Fred believes that the death penalty is ethically wrong. After watching a documentary about capital punishment, he discussed his belief with his wife. Choose the statement from Fred that is NOT consistent with his belief.“Humans must not play God by deciding when someone’s life should end.”“If someone harmed a member of our family, I believe he would deserve death.”“The threat of the death penalty does not deter criminals from committing crimes.”“No matter the offense, the state should never use death as punishment.”RATIONALETo live philosophically, a person must examine his or her beliefs to ground them in knowledge, and then act according to those beliefs. By making an exception to his position on the death penalty for people who harmed a member of his family, Fred displays an inconsistent philosophical worldview.