AP EURO chapter 14 terms - AP EURO Chapter 14 Scientific...

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12/12/2012 AP EURO Chapter 14 Scientific Revolution Terms 3829 Words 1. Nicholas Copernicus Polish Astronomer Enjoyed a high reputation during his life Had been educated at the University of Cracow in Poland and later in Italy Led a largely isolated intellectual career and was not known for strikingly original or unorthodox thought Published On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres during the year of his death Helped start a complete criticism of the then-dominant view of the position of the earth in the universe 2. Copernican System/Copernicanism 3. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Published by Copernicus during the year of his death Was a revolution-making rather than a revolutionary text Book provided a criticism for the domination view of the position of the earth in the universe Challenged the Ptolemaic picture in the most conservative manner possible i. Copernicus adopted many elements of the Ptolemaic model but transferred them to a heliocentric model 4. Ptolemaic Systems Systems of the universe that were based on mathematical calculations relating to astronomy Many different systems created by many different writers and commentators i. But they all used the mathematical/astronomical decisions that Ptolemy used Ptolemaic model had several problems i. Observed motion of the planets At certain times planets appeared to be going backward 5. Geocentric A view that the Earth was the center of the universe Many people who used the Ptolemaic systems believed the Earth was the center of the universe 6. Epicycle The path that a planet follows The planet moved uniformly around a small circle The center of the epicycle moved uniformly about a larger circle called a deferent i. The Earth was at the center of the deferent 7. Heliocentric Sun centered model which assumed the Earth moved about the sun in a circle Created by Copernicus Was no more accurate than Ptolemy’s Copernicus could claim certain advantages over Ptolemy’s model though i. The epicycles were smaller
12/12/2012 AP EURO ii. The retrograde motion of the planets was now explained as the result of an optical illusion that arose because people were observing the planets from Earth, which was moving itself iii. Copernicus also argued that the farther planets were from the sun, the longer they took to revolve around it iii.1. The length of these revolutions made it easier to determine the order of planets (how they ranked in terms of distance from the sun Copernicus used no new evidence to create this theory The major impact of his work was to provide another way of confronting some of the difficulties inherent in the Ptolemaic astronomy.

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