June 5th

June 5th - June 5th, 2007 Female Physiology Life Expectancy...

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June 5 th , 2007 Female Physiology Life Expectancy at birth: Men: 75.2 Women 80.4 Leading Causes of Death, U.S. 2004 Rank: Cause of Death # of Deaths % of Total Deaths 1. Heart Diseases 652,486 27.2 2. Cancer 553,888 23 3. Cerebrovascular Diseases 150,074 6.3 4. Chronic Lower Respiratory 121,987 5.1 5. Accidents 112,012 4.7 15. Assault (homicide) 17,357 0.7 Maternal 540 13.1 Carcinoma, malignancy, malignant tumor, neoplasm Benign- remains confined to its original location Dysplasia- pre-cancerous changes (a mistake) tissues lose their appearance Carcinoma in situ small tumor that has not spread Malignant – capable of spreading to surrounding tissue = CANCER Metastasize – spread throughout the body Original Site ------------------ Lungs ---------------- Liver Direction of blood flow Grade – How bad the cells look (1, 2, and 3) Stage – How far the cancer has spread (I, II, III, IV) Tumor – Neoplasm (“new growth”), can be solid or cysts (fluid filled) I. Causes of Cancer? A. Damage to genetic material of cells leading to loss of growth inhibition B. Environmental factors: 1. Tobacco (80% of lung cancers, but linked to cervical, uterine, pancreatic, bladder, liver, heart disease and stroke
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2. High doses of UV irradiation 3. Environmental toxins (asbestos, coal dust, black hair dye) 4. Exposure to HTLV – 1, Epstein-Barr virus, HPV C. Carcinogens 1. Those that affect cell reproduction and migration 2. Those that enhance growth D. Inherited pre-disposition (oncogenes, mutations) 1. BRCA-1 and BRCA – 2 2. p53 tumor suppressor gene Treatments: Surgery Excision of tumor and surrounding tissue Radiation Kill local areas of rapidly-dividing cells Chemotherapy Interferes with cells ability to divide Hormone Therapy Suppress particular types via hormones receptors Chemoprevention Anti-estrogens (tamoxifen) Gene therapies (replace defective ones)
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June 5th - June 5th, 2007 Female Physiology Life Expectancy...

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