Beng 130 Lecture 16-18

Beng 130 Lecture 16-18 - Kinetics of Chemical and Enzymatic...

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Unformatted text preview: Kinetics of Chemical and Enzymatic Reactions Introduction Introduction Basic concepts of reaction kinetics Basic concepts of reaction kinetics Rate laws and kinetic orders Rate laws and kinetic orders Basic theories of chemical reactions Basic theories of chemical reactions- Collision theory and transition state theory Collision theory and transition state theory Enzyme catalyses and enzyme reaction kinetics Enzyme catalyses and enzyme reaction kinetics- Basic concepts and catalytic strategies Basic concepts and catalytic strategies- Kinetics, Kinetics, Michaelis Michaelis-Menten Menten Kinetics etc. Kinetics etc. Reading: Chapters 7&8, Lecture Notes Reading: Chapters 7&8, Lecture Notes Why Kinetics? Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Tells us whether a reaction can occur or the direction of a reaction , and how we can influence the direction of a reaction. But it doesnt tell us how fast the reaction can proceed. Kinetics Kinetics Tells us when or how fast a reaction will occur . It helps us understand reaction mechanism and influence rates to speed up or slow down a reaction. H 2 2 + 1/2O + 1/2O 2 H 2 O = kjmol G 237 C (graphite) C (graphite) C (diamond) C (diamond) High P and T Spontaneous Spontaneous = kjmol G 84 . 2 + Free Energy Chemical Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Requires a Catalyst H 2 2 + 1/2O + 1/2O 2 H 2 O = kjmol G 237 Spontaneous + Free Energy Even though the reaction that releases a tremendous amount of free energy is a spontaneous process at atmosphere pressure and room temperature, a catalyst is needed to catalyze the reaction! Development of efficient catalysts is crucial for fuel cell applications. In a fuel cell, hydrogen gas from the fuel reacts electrochemically at one electrode and converts into protons and electrons. The protons move through the electrolyte to the other electrode, where they combine with oxygen from the air and with the electrons to form water, which is expelled from the cell as vapor. The involvement of hydrogen and oxygen in the two reactions - one releasing electrons and the other consuming them - yields electrical energy that is tapped across the electrodes for power, for example, to drive a motor. The Chemistry Behind Man-Made Diamond C (graphite) C (graphite) C (diamond) , High P and T Spontaneous 1 84 . 2 = kJmol G atm P P P V atm G G 000 , 15 ) 1 ( 935 . 1 84 . 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( = + = At room temperature and assume volume change is independent of P 1 1 36 . 3 = mol JK S Increasing temperature will not favor diamond formation. Increasing temperature will speed up the transformation, but even higher pressure will be needed to provide the necessary free-energy change....
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Beng 130 Lecture 16-18 - Kinetics of Chemical and Enzymatic...

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