LIN228H1F Phonetics - Lecture 2 slides

LIN228H1F Phonetics - Lecture 2 slides - LIN228H1F...

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LIN228H1F Phonetics Lecture 2: Vowels Lecture 2 Vowels 1
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Roadmap... Review basic consonant sounds of English Describing vowel sounds Basic vowel sounds of English Additional English vowels Vowels generally not found in Canadian English Vowels before / ɹ / (+ tense/lax distinction) [ ə ] versus [ ʌ ] (+ stress) ] ( stress) Broad vs. Narrow Transcription Broad vs. Narrow transcription defined (& redefined) Phonemes and Allophones English allophonic variation in vowels Announcements 2
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Basic consonant sounds of English 3
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From Lecture 1 Consonant sounds found in English: l ental ar eolar Bilabial Labiode Dental Alveola Postalv Palatal Velar Glottal Stop p b t d k ɡ ʔ p t k Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h Affricate t ʃ d ʒ Nasal m n ŋ Approximant ʍ w ɹ j ʍ w Lateral l approximant Consonant dimensions Voicing Pl f ti l ti 4 Place of articulation Manner of articulation
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Describing Vowels & Basic vowel sounds in English 5
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Vowels Vowels are sounds produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow relatively freely through the mouth. Vowels are usually voiced (though voiceless vowels exist in some languages), and they are usually oral (though nasal vowels can also be produced). It is assumed that vowels are voiced and oral segments, unless they are marked otherwise using diacritics [ i ̥ ] = voiceless [ i ͂ ] = nasal [ i ] 6
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Describing vowels Vowels are generally described using three b d basic dimensions: 1. Height 2. Backness 3. Rounding Height and backness refers to the l f h i h h placement of the tongue in the mouth. The body of the tongue can be high or low or somewhere in between ( mid ). (In some conventions high and low are referred to (In some conventions, high and low are referred to as “close” and “open” respectively.) It can be moved towards the back of the mouth or towards the front of the mouth or h i b ( l ) 7 somewhere in between ( central ).
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Describing vowels Rounding : When you produce vowels you can have your lips in a neutral When you produce vowels, you can have your lips in a neutral position ( unrounded ); or you can bring them forward into an O shape ( rounded ). R di li h l l h h h/ l i Thi i h Rounding slightly lengthens the mouth/oral cavity. This is why cross- linguistically back vowels are also rounded vowels: the rounding emphasizes the backness. 8
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A note about Cardinal vowels In the IPA, the term “Cardinal vowel” refers to a specific point on the IPA vowel chart’s quadrilateral (pictured on this slide). I l h l f h h h In reality, since the vowel space is continuous, it is a matter of chance whether a vowel in a language exactly coincides with one of the reference points symbolized on the quadrilateral.
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