Astronomy Exam 1 Chapter Notes

Astronomy Exam 1 Chapter Notes - (14 Chapter1 186,...

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Astronomy Exam 1 Chapter Notes:  (1-4)  Chapter 1: Universe is ever expanding  Explaining into nothing- doesn’t exist 186,000 miles per seconds in space-  speed of light light year= 186,000 miles per sec in a year Earth is traveling  ½  million mph around center of galaxy  AU=  distance from Earth to the Sun= 149.598,000 kilometers  Parallax- way to measure distance. (thumb in front of eye and switch from right to left eye)  Chapter 2: Star patterns: Constellations:  the constellations are totally imaginary things that poets, farmers  and astronomers have made up over the past 6,00 years (probably more) The real  prupise for the constellations is to help us tell which stars are which, nothing  more. The constellations help by breaking up the sky into more manageable bits Asterisms:  different names given to constellations viewable from the northern  hemisphere. EX: the big and little dipper are asterism for ursa minro and ursa  major  Stellar brightness (magnitude):  the brighter the star the smaller the magnitude  calues. The brighteness ofa star is diminished byb distance.  Hipparchus: backward, exponential:  Hipparchus ranked stars in six magnitude  classes according to ehir brightenss; he assigned the value of one to the twenty  brightest stars, where ones a value of two and so forth to the stars with a class of  six, which can be barely seen with the naked eye. A similar system is still used  today.  Celestial sphere:  celestial sphere imaginary sphere of infinite radius with the  earth at its center. It is used for describing the positions and motions of stars and  other objects. For tehse purposes, any astronomical object can be thought of as  being located at the point where the line of sight from the earth through the object  intersects the surface of the celestial sphere. Celestial sphere:  stars are randomly scatterd throughout the sky; the sky has no  depth; the theoretical globe that encompasses the sky  Celestial poles:  the imaginary points in the sky where the Earth’s axis of  roatation. “infinitely extended” 1
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Zenith:  the highest point a celestial body reaches while in orbit  Equator: called so because its equal distance form the north pole as it is to the  south pole  Celestial sphere i.e. the sky  Celestial horizon:  we see it as though the world is flat, and its extended  throughout the horizon  You horizontal lines from where you are to the celestial sphere Book definition: is a great circle parallel to the horizon, the center of which is the  center of the earth 
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