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Unformatted text preview: COGNITION AND LEARNING February 14, 2008 Problem Solving • Understand the problem, formulate and evaluate solutions Methods • Trial and error = inefficient and no guarantee • Algorithms = inefficient but guaranteed (systematic consideration of all possible solutions; a set of rules) • Heuristics = more efficient, no guarantee (strategies; rules-of-thumb that have worked in the past) o Types of heuristics Backward search Means-ends analysis (using subgoals) Analogy (finding similarities) Factors that interfere with effective problem-solving • Functional fixedness = cannot see new uses for familiar objects (tacks and candle on wall) • Mental set = sticking with a strategy despite the existence of a more efficient approach (getting into a mental rut) (3 jars or water, trying to achieve goal) Intelligence and Creativity Intelligence, like sex appeal, is hard to define Best known measures were developed by Americans (Lewis Terman and David Wechsler) Terman’s Stanford-Binnet Intelligence Scale o Verbal and performance items o Gives a standard age score...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course PSY 110 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '08 term at Illinois State.
- Spring '08