Ch. 3 Sounds of LanguageYule, G. (2010). The Study of Language (4th ed.). New York: Cambridge.
How are Speech Sounds ConsistentlyRepresented in Written Form?•Phonetic alphabet•Speech sounds represented by symbols in brackets. _[t] [p] [i]_•International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) also includes speech sounds that are not a part of the English language
Phonetics : The study of speechsounds•Articulatory phonetics: How speech sounds are produced, or articulated•Acoustic phonetics: physical properties of speech sounds (sound waves, frequency, amplitude)•Auditory phonetics: perception of sounds
Vocal Tract•In order to produce speech sounds, we must first have air in our lungs•Sound is generated at the larynx•Vocal fold vibration = voiceless vs. voiced–sounds (sss vs. zzz)
Repertoire of Speech Sounds•Changing shape of vocal tract by constriction of air•Constriction done by articulators•Vocal cord vibration (voice)•Location where air can be constricted (place)•How air is constricted (manner)*Phonetic symbolsrefer to speech sounds- pay attention to the sound, not the spelling.
Place of Articulation•Bilabials: lips•Labiodentals: upper teeth and lower lip (f)•Dentals/interdentals: tongue tip between teeth (th)•Alveolars