Study Guide: French and Haitian Revolutions(North Atlantic Revolution Lecture) – Historiography of French Revolution 18th & 19th – Century Studies:•Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France(1790) conservative opinion, revolution July 1789 "too far". •Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism (1797–1798), Abbé BarruelFreemasons & dissidents responsible destruction monarchy & Catholic Church. •Liberal approach support achievements constitutional monarchy of National Assembly but disowned actions radical violence like Reign of Terror.•French historians 1st half 19th: politician François Guizot, historian François Mignet in Histoire de la Revolution française(1824), & famous philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville in L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution (1856) liberal approach. Marxist Interpretations of the French Revolution:•1st half 20th Marxist, or Classic - “bourgeois” marked class struggle & victory bourgeoisie.•The Great Fear of 1789(1932) - Georges Lefebvre socialist viewpoints - revolution from below about violence & grassroots actions rural & focuses class struggle. •The Coming of the French Revolution(1947) Lefebvre Marxist lens: "aristocratic revolution" Assembly of Notables in 1788; "bourgeois revolution" Third Estate, "popular revolution” fall Bastille, & "peasant revolution” “Great Fear" burning châteaux. Revisionist Works on the French Revolution:•The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution(1963) - Alfred Cobban notradically transform society & feudalism long gone/political rather than socialrevolution. •George Taylor's research bourgeoisie of Third Estate not quite capitalists they were made out to be.1
•Simon Schama's Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution(1989) conservative history in tradition of Lefebvre & denies existence so-called "bourgeois" revolution.•Lynn Hunt, after revisionists - Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution(1984) –formation new democratic culture. Recent Studies on French Revolution:•Rebel Daughters: Women and the French Revolution (1992) -Leslie Rabine gender & role women/restriction rights. •How revolutionary process new gender system as foundation modern culture.•Staging the French Revolution: Cultural Politics and the Paris Opera, 1789-1794 (2012) – Mark Darlow cross – disciplinary approach material context opera production & offered area competing views on patriotism & society.•Examines how operas used as propaganda tool in popular culture during Republic era. Financial Crisis in Pre- Revolutionary France:•Nearing bankruptcy Louis XVI’s reign since debt Seven Years War & participation American Revolution. •Comptroller – General of Finance Jacques Necker said regressive tax system lower classes heavier burden than upper & tax exemptions nobility & clergy must be reduced & need to borrow more money.