Personality ch 7,8,9,&10

Personality ch 7,8,9,&10 - Chapter 7 Trait approaches I...

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Chapter 7: Trait approaches I View of the person A Trait concept 1. ____ consistent patterns _________________________ in the way individual behave, feel, and think a. ______ across __________ situations and ___________ overtime b. Behaviors in a type of social context 2. Features that make one person distinct compared to others a. Psychological characteristics that make humans distinct from one another. B Scientific functions served by trait constructs 1. a. Establish overall _ scheme that people can be described by _________________ b. ____ describe ___________ people 2. ___ Predict ___________ a. Predict behavior, future performance, etc. 3. ____ Explain __________ C Basic perspectives shared by trait theorists 1. Possession of traits 2. Direct relation between ___ trait possesion _____________________ and trait related actions 3. Organized into a hierarchy II Allport’s theory of personality A Identifying personality factors 1. Allport & Odbert (1936) a. ________________ of traits B Structure – Trait 1. Personality traits a. Generalized and personalized determining tendencies b. Personality descriptors _ traits ________ o consistent and stable modes of an individual’s adjustment to his environment __ states and activities __________ o temporary, brief, and caused by external circumstances 2. Three kinds of traits a. _ Cardinal _______________ A single trait; pervasive, outstanding, dominant b. _ Central ______________ Best describe an individual’s personality c. __ Secondary ________________ Least conspicuous, general, or obvious 3. Variability a. __ situation __________ may explain the variability of behavior C Process 1. ____ Functional Autonomy ______________________- (c.f., Psychoanalytic theory) a. The motives of mature, emotionally healthy adults are not functionally connected to the prior experiences in which they initially appeared (c.f., psychoanalytic) D The uniqueness of the individual 1. _ Idiographic ________________ approach
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a. In depth, case studies Published 172 letters from 1 woman o Samples of a person’s written or spoken records (e.g., diaries, letters) b. Emphasizes the pattern of traits c. Suggests _________________ for each person E Limitations 1. Lack of systematic research on his concept of trait a. Little scientific evidence to support theories 2. ___ idiogroaphic ________________ approach a. Case studies à some thought was anti-scientific Conflicted with scientific research for general laws of personality III Factor analysis (Read pp.246-248) A. A large number of test items à reduced # of factors B. Identify the most fundamental dimensions IV Cattell’s theory of personality A Structure – Factors 1. Levels a. Surface traits On the surface, can be observed b. Source traits Building blocks of personality Stable Factor analyzed 2. 16 source traits and three categories a. Ability traits – skills that allow the individual to function effectively i. Ex. intelligence
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Personality ch 7,8,9,&10 - Chapter 7 Trait approaches I...

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