India+and+the+British+Raj - Age of Imperialism I India and the British Raj Imperialism Old model Colonization with settling class Implications Europes

India+and+the+British+Raj - Age of Imperialism I India and...

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Unformatted text preview: Age of Imperialism I: India and the British Raj Imperialism Old model : Colonization with settling class Implications: Europe’s slow rise to power- direct political connection to mother country to rule Imperialism: Domination of subject lands with small group of people temporarily in the country Direct and indirect imperialism: direct political connections sometimes to mother country, but indirect is establishment without direct political hold but use political and military influence to establish them Implications Motives of Imperialism Necessary for survival? So argue yes because Economic Raw Materials needed from countries that were once colonies Political Lands of strategic importance to power of the nation Patriotism: new growth amongst many Europeans… British had pride in their importance in the scheme of things Stewardship: justifies extension of power of the state Cultural: necessary to expand for the good of others Missionization– conversion to protestant “White Man’s Burden” Tools of Empire Industrialization- allows for Europe to control most of land in the world Transportation technologies: greater penetration of waters and lands– greater flow of trade Steamships, Railroads Canals: Suez, Panama Military technologies Firearms and their effects: most accuracy and further distance Steamships to move troops faster and better Communication technology Steamships (1850s), telegraph (1870)- faster and more responsive government Britain in India: Background Trade for spices, 1600s Breakup of Mughal Empire: one of the 3 great empires British East India Company: want to trade and establish themselves as a power so back different groups that are fighting from the fallen empire and the British begin to dominate them in unequal treaties Policies Land grabs Profiteering Ethnocentrism 1790s-1850s- conquest and bring together area of subcontinent that they are going to dominate Sepoys: mercenaries that is owned ny British East India Company to empower themselves Sepoy Rebellion 1857 Enfield rifle: British want the sepoys to use these and these are greased with fat and muslims don’t eat pork and hindus don’t eat beef and they complain bc the fat can be from anywhere Sepoy revolt Uprisings/rebellions 1857 March on Delhi in north to disempower british east india company Restoration of Mughal Emperor was wanted but failed Massacre of British citizens Arson: marks the uprising– burning and structure that has to do with the british east india company North/Central India British reaction: takes almost a year to gain control again Act for the Better Government of India 1858 Abolishes east India Company power in india Transfers government to Great Britain British Raj colony created Indian troops part of British army bc their was no formal chain of command for the sepoy to complain about the rifle More British troops bc they don’t completely trust the sepoys End missionary activities Britain’s authority 1870- Britain controls 3/5 of South Asia 560 princely states Princely states Control Cannot Education Local government Make treaties bc british don’t join them to join together with other nations British authority over princes British policy and Indian culture Ethnocentrism Sati Sepoys Hindu reactions Caste Widows and remarriage Colonial Society: The Social Order British class order Aristocracy Middle class Lower middle class Independent businessmen Working class Middle class: service in government No social mobility British Women Social status Aristocracy: charitable organizations Memsahibs Medicine and missionaries Diaries, histories Social life Long workdays Money Boredom at home for wives Bachelors Recreation Hill stations Relations with the Indians Princes Autonomy, titles Peasantry No real changes Riots British relations with the growing middle class Indian officials Education Indian Civil Service: creation of group of people that work in indian civil service that work side by side the british and do work that british officials do but not as recognized No promotion English (classical) Creating established middle class Criticism of British policies Nationalism that calls for independent movement of india which comes from british indian service Exclusion Aristocracy in India-royals Neglect of peasants Middle classes Social friction Segregation of British Durbars “For Europeans only” “Going native” no mingling between british and Indians Racial politics Ilbert Bill, 1882: Ilbert: conducts study of what money goes in and out of india because of the separate court systems Surendranath Banerjea Nationalist movement begins out of the middle class Member of indian civil service until he was fired and brings suit and finds himself in England and he returns to india as a moderate nationalist Indian Association- India’s first nationalist group: says this stuff has to happen before they become an independent nation Unification of Indian races Hindu/Muslim relations need to grow Inclusion of the masses not just the elite “Surrender-not”: nickname given to him by the british Moderate Indian National Congress 1885 Beginnings self-government Hindu professionals form this and are advisory group to the british Military spending is the first thing they take up Taxes and the peasantry Loss of land Congress Fairer land tax suggested to pay british debts Reduction in British debts Partition of Bengal 1905 Viceroy Lord Curzon: breaks up one of the biggest indian territory– West and East Bengal West Bengal East Bengal Hindu Muslim majority Muslim population forms muslim leaague 1906- Muslim League– wants independence as a muslim india… develops into Pakistan and they don’t get along with india Effects on national unity– major stubling bloack on road to indian independence Protest Swadeshi movement (of one’s country)—starts as a non violent movement but part transforms Protests Boycott of british goods Rebirth of Indian education Homespun cotton which creates a domestic market Boycott of british schools and educate in indian traditions and languages Annie Besant: works along side indian nationalist and founded new indian education system Violence breaks out on religious lines and in areas with dense populaions of muslims and dense population of hindus British Response Crackdown on civil rights Indian Councils Act 1909 Elementary education act Provincial councils that are made of Indians that are advisors to british Indians Advisors have to be present Wealthy Indians: suffrage Compulsory school to age 11- mandatory school systems, public schools Bengal reunited, 1911 but doesn’t solve anything Conclusion Imperial rule and the differences between diredt and indirect Economic concerns of empire and india Global presence why india? Racial prejudices- how is it seen? Growing nationalism Unification problems Religious tensions ...
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