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6 Atmosphere Temperature

6 Atmosphere Temperature - Atmospheric Temperature GEOG345...

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Atmospheric Temperature GEOG345 Sep 19 2006 Textbook: chapter 3
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Temperature and climate Temperature is one of the fundamental atmospheric variables Atmospheric temperature is one of the fundamental climate indicators Controls of temperature astronomical (i.e. patterns of solar radiation) geographical (surface type, elevation etc.) One of the variables most directly affecting human activities and comfort
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Fig. 3-2, p. 56 Incoming solar radiation Depending on the angle of the beam of radiation, the same amount of radiant energy is spread over different areas. The lower the angle, the less energy the same (unit) area (E) receives – it decreases with the cosine of the illumination zenith angle ( γ) . E( γ) =E(0)*cos γ This effect is a major control in shaping “overall” climate (e.g. annual mean temperature); seasonal and diurnal variation. γ γ=0
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Radiant energy and illumination ang
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Solar illumination angle Within a day solar elevation angle is the highest at local noon The highest solar elevation angles over the year occur within the tropical zone The 23½ º angle of the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation to the plane of its orbit around the Sun causes variation of the solar illumination angle - > seasonality .
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Fig. 3-3, p. 57 Seasonality
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Fig. 3-6, p. 58 On the day of summer solstice (~Jun 21) 1. the Sun remains all day above the horizon North of the Arctic Circle and under the horizon all day South of the Antarctic Circle 2. the sun is directly above the Topic of Cancer at local noon On the day of the winter solstice (~Dec 21) 1. the Sun remains all day above the horizon South of the Antarctic Circle) and North of the Arctic Circle 2. the sun is directly above the Topic of Capricorn (~23½ºS) Arctic Circle (~66½ºN) Tropic of Cancer (~23½ºN) Tropic of Capricorn (~23½ºS) Antarctic Circle (~66½ºS) Summer and winter solstices Equator (0º)
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Fig. 3-4, p. 58 “Midnight Sun”
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Fig. 3-8, p. 61 Apparent path of the Sun
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Table 3-1, p. 60 Length of daylight Equator: 12 hours every day
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6 Atmosphere Temperature - Atmospheric Temperature GEOG345...

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